# Evolution Of Computers

## Computer - A Miracle

When men started to count the numbers, they thought of devices that can track of the numbers. The Abacus may be the first such device and it took hundreds of years to develop the Abacus to modern digital computer. The first computer originated as an ordinary calculator in 19th century.

The calculators had only limited applications, performing mathematical calculations like addition, substraction, multiplication and division. Storage of data were not possible in these devices. Now the modern computers help men in almost all complicated areas like flight control of aeroplanes and even in space shuttles. The computers do not compete with men, but actually help him by increasing the pace of his complicated lifestyle. It receives data, processes data and retrieves data in a lightning speed comparing with human brain. Thus it becomes a miracle-helper for all human beings. Let us have a birds eye-view of the evolution of computer.

## The Abacus

The abacus was the earliest calculating machine probably originated in China about 3,000 years ago. It is still widely used in Asia for primary education. The name abacus is derived from abax; Greek word for slab. It may be because the counting was once done with pebbles placed in a hollow in a slab. In China it is also known as Swan Pan. Abacus consist of a rectangular wooden frame with horizontal rods. Beads made of stones, pearls wood or ivory ( having holes in it to pass through the rods). are placed in these rods. Counting is done by shifting the beads from one place to another. Ir is a hand-used device for addition and substraction. The abacus consist of several columns, farthest to the right represents 'ones', the next one 'tens then the hundreds and so on.

## Napier's Bones

John Napier, a Scottish mathematician, developed a evice having a set of rods made of bones.(so the device is called napiers bone) for calculations involving multiplication. In 1614 John Napier introduced Logarithms. The tables used in the logarithm repesent the analogue compuating technique. In logarithm, multiplication and division can be done by adding and substracting not the numbers themselves but with help of related numbers. Making the use use of logarithms, William Oughtred, the English mathematician developed a device called The Slide Rule in the 1920s.

## Blaise Pascal

Blaise Pascal was a French mathematician born on 19th June 1623 at Clermont-Ferrand. Auvergue. In 1642 , when he was only 19 years old, he invented a calculating machine called Pascaline. It was the first mechanical digital calculator that can perform addition and subtraction on whole numbers. It had a system of interlocking rotating cog wheels. Each wheel had ten segments like in a mileometer. When one wheel completes a rotation, the next wheel moves by one segment. Numbers 0 to 9 are there on the circumference of the wheel. Pascal patented this machine in 1647, and produced it on a mass scale.

## Analog Computer

Analog computers are fundamentally different in principle from the modern digital computers. In analog devices, different quantities are represented in various physical ways such as by position of a rotating wheel, the distances between pounts in a surface or by different voltages. In 19th century , the early days of computing, almost all computers used analog devices. Analog computers use simple devices, even they are mechanically complicated. It worked on a decimal decade system usinf rows of 10 position wheels. Each wheel rotated one position fo;r each complete revelution to the right like ibn a mileometer. Wheels reverse for substraction and the mechanical linkages allowed multiplucation and division.

## Punched Cards

French inventor Joseph-Marie Jacquard (1752-1834) introduced a new weaving loom in 1805. This loom used series of cards with holes punched in different positions to produce different desired patterns in weaving. This loom was widely used in the whole world.

## The Difference Machine

Jacquards Weaving System using punched cards attracted many scientists. ZBritish mathematician Charles Vavvafe (1792-1871) inspired by the punched cards to idea, developed an idea of using punched cards to input data. He worked on the idea for more then ren years to resolve the complicated calculation. He face many difficulties. His chief engineer set a dispute with him. The Government withdrew all financial assistance and at last the parts made by him scrapped and the manufacturing of Difference Engine could not be completed.

Babbage continued his efforts and put forward an idea of a machine that can do 60 calculations per second. This was called Analytical Engine which stamped the foundation for modern computing. Therefore, Babbage is often considered as Father of modern Computers. Babbage couldn't succeed in materialising his ideas because of many obstacles faced in his way. But however on his 200th birth anniversary, 1st november 1991, the scientists and engineers buit the Difference Engine No.2 on his sound idea for his memory. This mechanical works perfectly till now.

## The First Programmer

Ada Augusta King(1815-52) daughter of Lord Byron, was the personal assostant of Charles Babbage. She suggested binary data storage and wrote the first computer program for the Analytical Engine. The ADA software was named after her.

## George Boole

George Boole (1815-64) was a self taught English Mathematician. Even though he had no university degree, he was appointed Professor of Mathematics at Queens College, Cork in 1849, the development of a system of a synobolic logic. He developed a two value binary algebra using ons 1's and 0's where '1' reperesents 'true' or on' and '0' represents 'false' or 'off'. All values are reduced to 'true' or false in the binary system. This theory of Boolean logicv became fundamental to the design of computer circuitry.

## Dr. Herman Hollerith

American inventor, Herman Hollerithy (1860-1929) developed punched card system for storing and retrievind data. He was satatistician in the Census Bureau of US and the idea developed to assist the mammoth task of census work. Hollerith developed a puch card that would contain data coded in the form of puched holes. He also built the tabulating machine to read the cards and processing the data. He Started Tabulated Machines Company in 1896. Later in 1911 this company became the Computing Tabulating Recording Company and now the International Bussiness machines, simply IBM.

## Digital Era

American mathematician Claude Shannon(born in 1916) in his Master's Degree thesis in 1937, suggested 1's and 0's of binary systems can be considered 'ON' and 'OFF' position of the flow of current. Too small and speedy electrically operated switch operated on a small current was needed to implement this Idea. Dr. John Vincent Atanasoff, a professor of physics and mathematics at Lowa State College with his graduate assistant Clifford Berry, built the first electroni computer, named Atanasoft-Berry Computer(ABC), ABC used vacuum tubes for storage and arithemetic logic functions. It was designed specially for the purpose of solving systems of simulataneous equations. He used Themionic Valves as electronically operated switch.

In 1946, physicists J. Presper Eckert nad John William Mauchy developed general purpose computer, Electronical Numerical Integrator And Calculator(ENIAC). This computer has 18000 valves consuming 100 kilowatts of power and weighed several tons!!! Even though it performed 5000 calculations in a second, it had so many disadvantages. The filaments of valves burn out frequently stopping the operations. There was no programming. Wiring system and switches had to be changed for different functions.

The Hungarian born American mathematician John Von Neuman introduced an idea of entering the program of instructions into the machines for its procedures as the numerical data is entered. This was the idea that actually led to the concept of modern softwares.

Admiral Grace Hopper devlopped this idea, and it was designed and built by Mauchy and Eckert. This first commercial electronic digital computer capable of using stored programs was called Universal Automatic Calculator UNIVAC. They were built commercially by Mauchy and Eckert in 1951.

## Transistors

in 1947,computers entered a second generation by the introduction of transistors. Transistors were tiny with lower power requirement, as it does not require a heated element. In transistor, a single power supply is needed where valves needed two and is more reliable and efficient than Thermionic Valves. It was developed by the American physicist William Shockley.

## Milestones

• IBM developed FORmula Translation Language(FORTRAN) in 1957.
• Jack Kilby and Noyce developed and perfected the integrated circuit in 1959, used in later computers.
• Hopper developed Common Business Oriented Language(COBOL), programming language in 1959
• In 1960s Gene Amdahal designed IBM system 360 series of mainframe computers, the first general purpose digital computer using integrated circuits.
• In 1963 Olsen with Digital Equipment Corporation produced the PDP-1(Program Data Processor), the first mini computer.
• iin 1965, Dr. John Kemeny, a mathematics professor at Dartmouth with his colleagues, Dr. Thomas Kurtz developed the computer language, Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code simply known as BASIC.
• In 19701, Intel created memory chip having storage capacity of 1 KB.
• Ted Hoff (Intel) compressed 12 chips with different arithmetic logic functions into four, called microprocessors. Hoff's microprocessor was calle Intel 4004("FORTY oh FOUR).
• In 1975 H.Edward Roberts, an electrical engineer designed the first Micro Computer.  Now he is known as the Father Of Micro Computer.
• In 1980s and 1990s chips and microcomputers developed rapidly by increasing in power and dropping in Price.
Hope this Hub gave an idea about the evolution of computers. Thanx For Reading. Comment. Rate. Subscribe.

## More by this Author

ARUN1108 6 years ago from India

Good hub and information about Computer.

Please tell me how you can insert image and Googel add in Text. I also want to do same but i dont know how to do write blog in simple english so i can understood

wordsscriber 6 years ago from California

Very useful information on evolution on computers. Computers have come a long way since the invention of the Analog Computer. Thanks!

Fluffymetal 6 years ago from Texas

Great hub!!

nikitha p 6 years ago from India

nice hub

suny51 6 years ago

You have done a lot of research.great job.Thanks for sharing.

Info Bucket 6 years ago from Kerala, India Author

Emman Lijesta 6 years ago from Philippines

This is a great a hub about the computers evolution. I can't wait for it's next evolution.

Info Bucket 6 years ago from Kerala, India Author

Its next stage will be Artificial Intelligence. Lets wait for its completion.

brettb 6 years ago from London

Where's the ZX Spectrum, the iconic computer I (and a whole generation of geeks) learnt to program on?

paradigmsearch 6 years ago from USA

A well researched article.

meah2006 6 years ago

its awsoming how computers keep being so advanced and getting high-tech!

prettydarkhorse 6 years ago from US

good information and it is amazing how computers evolved, Maita

Info Bucket 6 years ago from Kerala, India Author

This hub gets more comments than my other hubs, Thanx all of you. Keep in touch.

Naina.Soni 6 years ago from lucknow,India

You've really done a good work..those pics are so nice..!!!

Info Bucket 6 years ago from Kerala, India Author

thanx all of you for stopping by.

Mystic 6 years ago

please correct your spelling mistakes. The information you have provided has helped me, still, check the spelling. there are lots of such mistakes.

Info Bucket 6 years ago from Kerala, India Author

Mystic, i will try to correct the spellings, any way thanx for stopping by and commenting.

rene 6 years ago

that's cool

renny 6 years ago

good

save my system 6 years ago from United Kingdom - London

The advent of computer systems was the best over invention in human history since it provided a faster brain to assist a human in its technological heading forward.

Ashwin 6 years ago

Thanks . too Useful

jean 5 years ago

its nice!

RTalloni 5 years ago from the short journey

Great overview of the history of computers. I enjoyed looking it over and learning some things that will be neat to have stored away for conversations. Young students will enjoy this and find it useful in some of their classes. Good job.

margie 5 years ago

nice!!!!!!!!!!!!!! i lyk it

sharmi 5 years ago

great collection it was very usefull

Gelai 5 years ago

Nice job

sakibmoon 5 years ago

Cool One. Good work.

INBASEKARAN.M.D 5 years ago

IT IS VERY GOOD WORK.IT IS GREAT COLLECTION.IT IS VERY USEFULL FOR ME AND ALL............

Hari prasanth 5 years ago

It is very easy to learn.Thank you

AKHIL 5 years ago

Good work.

Ganesh 5 years ago

Good.But can add some more pictures

Hecks 5 years ago

Good Work And Nice

shinila rose 5 years ago

really it is very useful

anjali 5 years ago

very informative

amy jackson 5 years ago

superabbu

vinith 5 years ago

nice

vigneshpandiyan 5 years ago

nice and cool

STAR 5 years ago

VERY INFORMATIVE & USEFUL

purple 5 years ago

coooooooooooooooooooool!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Kemal Ibrahim Nuru 5 years ago

thank you for your valuable information

CESS 5 years ago

NYCE

NAVEEN 5 years ago

suberb it helped me for my project

tayyeba jafar 5 years ago

excellent work of Scientists

Queen yomcha 5 years ago

Its really great!! n i really appreciate that the scientists had used their brains n ability to made this humanistic robot!!

rosendo montallana 5 years ago

nice info

keep it up

///_^

ayesha 5 years ago

its superb this is the best site i found ever thankyou so much for your support.

paul francisco 5 years ago

there is some mistake in typing the whole thing... try to copy in Microsoft word and you can see some underlined by green or red it means that there's a wrong on spelling... that's all thank you so much for this...

zamzam 5 years ago

yeah; it was so cool because it help so many people it was very briliant

vayu.s.tiwari 5 years ago

nice info yoooooooooooooo...............

Dewlnd 5 years ago

Very execellent work......

Rahul 5 years ago

Gud..i like it but i think they should go in more deep about history

Aashima 5 years ago

Nice information

massy 5 years ago

nice one i like it

Aman 5 years ago

nice history on computer

janaka 5 years ago

great...

lucasaraujo 5 years ago from Brasil, Vitoria - ES

Your hub is very interesting and informative because many do not know the history of evolution of computers.

Congratulations on your creativity, you are very good!

jonathan 5 years ago

it is very interested i really,really like it..

Anthony 5 years ago

A nice read, though I painfully want to correct the typos.

arche mae 5 years ago

it is nice but their some words that are not correctly type.

sarwat zain 5 years ago

informative page .it helps me making an assignment but will you please tell me how these helps in calculation in renaissance

Ain-za anina 5 years ago

Nice infor...it very beautiful....good ideall

aishab82 4 years ago

nice:)

sharique alam 4 years ago

nice document

don 4 years ago

very useless

ashima 4 years ago

its good

CompMaster 4 years ago

Nice...love it!

mae j 4 years ago

very nice

ritu , india 4 years ago

it's nice & great

GAILE 4 years ago

AMAZING!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

ammu 4 years ago

it's good

death the kid 4 years ago

this is awsome :]

anushka 4 years ago

good....help me a lot

arath 4 years ago

thnkzz a lot

meghana shetty 4 years ago

fine thanks for help me

bharti 4 years ago

your matter is good,it use ful to me.

4 years ago

good one

ricky ravjot 4 years ago

9780078790

deepa 4 years ago

it's really useful

Kehinde Olugbenga 4 years ago

Beautiful, informative and educative. But work on the spelling. Typographical is much. Thank you

Siddhant Gunsola 3 years ago

fair

aishu 3 years ago

nice

snazzy 20 months ago

NyC and useful hub