How to build a simple Line Tracer Robot??

Some Advanced Line Tracers

Infrared LED
Infrared LED
Photodiode
Photodiode
LM324 Comparator IC
LM324 Comparator IC
L293D Motordriver IC
L293D Motordriver IC


Line Tracer or Line Follower Robot is one of the simplest bots fit for an amateur to dig into the vast field of Robotics. The same bot can be made complex in Mechanical implementation if  precision requirement is more. Lets have a look on how simply a Line Tracer can be constructed.

Requirements:

  1. Two DC Gearhead Motors: Can be 45 rpm or 100rpm or even more. 45/100 rpm may be better for beginners.
  2. Motor Driver IC L293D
  3. Comparator IC LM324
  4. Sensor Network : TSOP/(IR led-Photodiode) sensors may be used. Failure chance for TSOP is more. So neglect it. Lets proceed with IR LED- Photodiode Pair. A minimum of 2 sensor networks may be used.
  5. Castor Wheel for support (Typical Reverse Rickshaw design)



Working Principle:IR LED must be forward biassed (+5V) and Photodiode reverse biassed (-5V). The sensors must be arranged such that the radiations from IR LED must reach within the proximity of the photodiode in case of reflections from a white surface. Ideally, the reflectivity of white surface is 1 and that for black surfaces is 0. The Line tracer works on the above principle for distinguishing white and black surfaces. The difference in analog between the two surfaces must be made digital. The comparator IC LM324 is used for this purpose.
The comparator will give outputs either high or low which can be adjusted for black /white respectively or in the reverse order by adjusting the input of the comparator IC( inverting/non-inverting inputs).Suppose that white gives HIGH and Black LOW. The output from comparator must be coupled to the motor driver IC L293D accordingly.

Sensor Arrangement: At least there must be two sensors. I will discuss the case of two sensors. The sensors must be arranged such that the line to be followed lies between them. i.e, the two sensors senses the ouside of the required line.This is to facilitate the differentiation of turns. Take the case of a black line to be traced in a white background.The robot must be set to motion when both sensors detect white.In case if left sensor detects black and right sensor white, then a turn to left is detected and reverse for the case of a right turn.As soon as a left turn is detected the left tyre( motors connected directly to tyre) must be stopped and right motor must only rotated. Or even the left tyre (motor) may be rotated in the reverse direction. The reverse is the case with a right turn. The direction of rotation of the motor may be adjusted by controlling the input signals to motor driver IC.

In case of a black background with white lines, the logic must be reversed.

Some Negatives: The robot will move forward if it is kept in a white background without any black line and it will stay still if kept in a black Background. The bot will stop at Junctions. these defects can be eliminated by using a microcontroller chip which is programmed to our requirements.


For any further doubts, do comment.

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Comments 66 comments

ayurveda profile image

ayurveda 7 years ago

Reaaly informative.... Thank you very much....


nikhil 6 years ago

Thanks a lot..Although i knew this...all the information at one place helps revision and clears doubts


mobilephones profile image

mobilephones 6 years ago from Bangalore, India Author

thanks to nikhil and ayurveda


karan wanchoo(wanchookaran@gmail.com) 6 years ago

can u please tell how to makes this with at mega 8535


ggkk 6 years ago

how to follow black line and then to white line?? thanks


mobilephones profile image

mobilephones 6 years ago from Bangalore, India Author

@ggkk

by incorporating programming techniques u can follow white line and then black line or vice versa. Try MPLAB or any other s.Tutorials are readily available on net.


Abhishek 6 years ago

veryy good info.


arvind 6 years ago

can u tell me how to make quick correction at the turns


mobilephones profile image

mobilephones 6 years ago from Bangalore, India Author

@arvind

using motors with more traction will do. Also chose an optimum speed motor according to your bot's stability.


Tito 6 years ago

can u send me a full circuit diagram and components required . titokuttan@gmail.com


mobilephones profile image

mobilephones 6 years ago from Bangalore, India Author

@tito

sent. check your inbox


Tito 6 years ago

i'm sorry i hav not yet got it pls resent it.i would be greatfull


Tito 6 years ago

ok check it

tito.efire@gmail.com


swapnil 6 years ago

spsphulse@gmail.com

can you help me out similarly in "micromouse"..????


victor 6 years ago

can i have the complete circuit..?

badmudafuker@yahoo.com


shashibhushan sharma 6 years ago

thank you for this robot.


yvhtejaswaroop 6 years ago

hi. can u mail me the construction and design features of the object? please.

my id id swrp_teja26@yahoo.com


shashibhushan sharma 6 years ago

please,you mail the construction of this robot.


shashibhushan sharma 6 years ago

piease,you mail the construction of this robot.

my id sbs1988ss@ggmail.com


hangal 6 years ago

hi bro can you give me the ic type diagram and the ciruit diagram of this one coz im gonna make this one pls bro i really need this one to pass for my subj. :( snd it to me plssss @ st_hangal@yahoo.com


nithin 6 years ago

hi how can we make acute angled turns ?


salman 6 years ago

can you give me the ic type diagram and the ciruit diagram of this one

salmanvirgo@hotmail.com


chinky 6 years ago

can u show mw how do i make the wiring of the sensors on the breadboard..?


Himanshu 6 years ago

Can u send me the circuit diagram of a line follwer .... with the components required on my mail id hims.destini@gmail.com


viren 6 years ago

hi bro can you give me the ic type diagram and the ciruit diagram of this one & send me a full circuit diagram and components required . coz im gonna make this one pls bro i really need this one

viren89desai@yahoo.co.in

thanx....


anas 6 years ago

nice

intrstng!

Can u plz sent a detailed fig

to ur.anas@yahoo.com


varky 6 years ago

an u send me a full circuit diagram and components required . vargheseskaria2010@gmail.com please it is urgetnt


jodieAJo 6 years ago

hei......this look interesting.....

can U please send me full circuit diagram n component thats needed to make this line tracer?????I need it....urgent....ASAP..please send to my email...

jodie.ajo@hotmail.com


Amar 6 years ago

really awesome line tracer........!

i am also interested in making a line tracer lyk this cud u plz send me the circuit diagram.. and the components required for me too plz ASAP :)


Amar 6 years ago

btw forgot to say my mail id

vijayhtanrama@gmail.com


brian 6 years ago

where can you buy one of these?


vertical_death 6 years ago

the best inform can i get


Anurag Kumar 6 years ago

Gr8 work


mobilephones profile image

mobilephones 5 years ago from Bangalore, India Author

hey folks!!

i have given more than enough info to construct a basic line tracer. Detailled circuit diagram will surely be spoon feeding.

Try yourself with the skeletal data given.


deepak 5 years ago

what about the programming part?

which language needs to be used?


prathamesh chavan 5 years ago

its realy gud tchnique.....

but my question is will it creat any prob for single castor wheel???????


ankur 5 years ago

sir how can i make the robot move at junctions without a microcontroller


bipinlaltheone 5 years ago

please mail me the complete circuit &its coponent details my e-mail id is bipinlal007@gmail.com


Adi Satria 5 years ago

can you give me a full schematic of the line follower

the diagram and its component on my e-mail

satria_adi_prayoga@yahoo.co.id


tijo 5 years ago

plz do sent me the complete circuit diagrams to this e-mail id

tijolpeter@gmail.com


swapnil 5 years ago

can u plzsend me d complete diagram n details of d line tracer...plz.

mail me at swaprks@gmail.com


shankar 5 years ago

i have a feeling thatINTENTIONALLY/ PURPOSEFULLY ,the author does not give full required information /circuit diagram etc .This is true with some other projects also.

This may be a BUSINESS TRIC so that the hobbyist is forced to buy the READY TO ASSEMBLE KITS.


Virendra Rajput 5 years ago

Hey it is use ful but you should provide a bit proframming tips too...


Embedded projects 5 years ago

I like robots very munch. Nice hub...Keep going...


mobilephones profile image

mobilephones 5 years ago from Bangalore, India Author

@shanker

A true hobbyist don't want to be spoon fed. He has the knack to get what he wants and what he aims. Some ppl creep into robotics just to make their resumes colourful. They are not willing to work hard. They just want cakewalks. What is the point in soldering a circuit designed by others to bag some prize in some tech fest. Be daring to innovate. I think that I have provided ample framework. Refer datasheets and design a circuit by your own. Plagiarism wont guide you much.


mobilephones profile image

mobilephones 5 years ago from Bangalore, India Author

@ankur

Brother, pls don't call me sir.

btw, you can design some logic using gates. This may increase the number of sensors but can be done without using micro controllers.Also don't mix logic families in a single design. Either use CMOS or TTL. Skim throuh the datasheets.


mobilephones profile image

mobilephones 5 years ago from Bangalore, India Author

@prathamesh chavan

Single castor wheel is good while negotiating turns. If speed matters most don't go for it.


sanjay 5 years ago

can u send me the full circuit diagram and the components required?


Hariharan 5 years ago

Thank u a lot.I just want to satart robotics and your explanation was very informative.


roopak 5 years ago

everything was okk except the coonection parts ...........that's not eplained practicallyyyyyyyyyy


chan 5 years ago

please send me complete details , circuit diagram and components required .....plz brother

my mail id electrochan@gmail.com

it would sure help me for the symposium i am going to take part next week... :-)


abhi 5 years ago

can u send me a full circuit diagram and components required . akothekar55@gmail.com


abhishek 5 years ago

please send me complete details , circuit diagram and components required .....plz brother

my mail id akothekar55@gmail.com


man 5 years ago

can u help me?please send me the flowchart and circuit diagram..i really need it..

mandini89@yahoo.com


Jasin k t 5 years ago

Sir i am very intersting about in this project ,plz send full details about this ,block diagram etc, thing these facility to requirea in another areas


jayson 4 years ago

bro can u send the full circuit diagram for your robot....


leks 4 years ago

can u send me the full circuit diagram and the components required?

lekelaplace@live.co.uk


abady 4 years ago

can u send me the full circuit diagram and the components required?

ab-uk@hotmail.com

thanks


yuvraj 4 years ago

i am fate up,seeing only external parts.please could you email me the clear total including circuit diagram of line tracer robort


Athul Sekhar 4 years ago

Pls snd full circuit diagram using IC


vijay 4 years ago

wastefalo ..........nv nee chettha mattr,adisinatte undi


kamalkant 4 years ago

its interesting so plz send more detailes of this ............ and how we enhance our skills to thing other extra programming based robots......


Kuldeep 4 years ago

can u plz tell that in Sensor cirucuit, what r TX and RX,,i mean whr 2 connect them!


bisan pradhan 4 years ago

Hie plez send me a details construction procedure ,data and circuit diagram..........


iik 3 years ago

the Tx is transmitter and Rx is receiver noob


uzan 3 years ago

plz send me construction process and full circuit diagram....

ujanshrestha22@gmail.com

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