in his short book, The First Crusade and Idea of Crusading, Jonathan Riley-Smith lays out the situation of the Church in the early 11th century and establishes the reasons, political and spiritual, the Europeans went on Crusade.
The Peloponnesian War was the greatest war of the ancient world before the rise of Rome. Donald Kagan's 2003 The Peloponnesian War is a clear and comprehensive work of history for layman and scholar alike.
Ancient Rome takes a look at an a large swathe of Roman history with the intent of providing the reading the basic ideas of Roman military and political history throughout the course of Roman history from the end of the monarchy until the fall of the empire. .
Diploma has come to mean an educational certificate, but for the Roman citizens it was a designation of service to the republic and for many it was their path to citzenship.
A review of Early Roman Warfare, by Jeremy Armstrong, a book detailing a revised model of development for the early Roman armies.
Throughout history, there are turning points in the development of nations and peoples. Rome, a small city-state on the bank of the Tiber, would see her fortune change in a series of battles throughout the late 5th and early 4th Century BC. The capture of Veii would be a turning point for Rome.
Rome, then a small city-state on the bank of the Tiber, would see her fortune change in a series of battles throughout the late 5th and early 4th centuries BC. At the Siege of Veii, Rome would embark on such a development.
In 209 BC Hannibal was the master of Italy, rampaging across the peninsula and threatening Rome itself. It fell to Scipio Africanus to recognize the strategic situation and take the fight to Hispania. There he would mastermind the overthrow of New Carthage and reorient the Roman war effort.
After the fall of the last king of the Roman Republic, the Roman people had to contend with the Etruscans and Latins as a fledgling state in a battle for supremacy in Latium. Alongside these battles, Rome's rebirth saw the rise of legendary citizens to herald the new government.
After the fall of the last king of the Roman Republic, the Roman people were adrift in a sea of warfare and a changing political landscape.
After the fall of the last king of the Roman Republic, the Roman people had to contend with the Etruscans and Latins as a fledgling state in a battle for supremacy in Latium.
At the Battle of the Allia, Roman armies were defeated by invading Senones, who would subsequently sack Rome.
How much do you know about Tarquin the Proud? Tarquin the Proud was the last king of Rome. And at Lake Regillus in the 490s BC, he would end his quest to regain the throne. Read on for this full historical story.
In 509 BC, Tarquin the Proud, last king of Rome, sought out Etruscan allies to try to retake his throne and found one in Lars Porsena of Clusium.
The year was 509 BC and Rome had just declared a republic, having driven out the last Etruscan king. Tarquin the Proud would never accept being deposed, and in his first attempt to retake the throne, he met a Roman army with his allied forces in the battle of Silva Arsia.
In warfare, innovation spurs victory. The Roman Maniple came to dominate the battlefields of antiquity through a unique fusion of individual savagery and the discipline of the phalanx.
In the 19th century, American expansionism resulted in a war of aggression against Mexico. This created a cultural divide that haunted both countries as they moved into the 21st century.
The Constitution of the USA does not strictly forbid political parties, and yet its writers cautioned heavily against the danger that such parties posed to the stability of the State.
Immigration has long been the lifeblood of the Americas, and the cultural melting pot of the USA has drawn millions of immigrants from their homelands to find the American Dream.
The American Civil War was a bloody affair involving the Northern Unionists and Southern Confederates, but did the war have to be so devastating?
Before Julius Caesar swept away the Roman Republic the Social Wars changed the fabric of Roman life irrevocably.
Gaul was an ancient enemy of Rome, but it was not simply one tribe of barbarians, they were many. Through their actions the Sequani changed the face of Gaul.
What is considered ethical can change based on the situation. In WWII the German city of Dresden became the catalyst for the study of what should be considered ethical in war.
Gaul was an ancient enemy of Rome, but it was not simply one tribe of barbarians, they were many. Among the Celtic tribes of ancient Gaul, the Nervii were considered the bravest and most warlike.
Catalonia has a rich and varied history, transforming from a tribal confederation through Roman, Barbarian and French rule until joining Aragon in the Spanish world.
The Pax Romana is widely seen as a period of peace at the start of the Roman Empire, but a modern look would not be so kind.
The cities of Palestine played an important role in the regions development. Tyre was no exception, and it’s long history mirrors that of the Levant.
Before the Greeks and Romans resettled Palestine it was the edge of the eastern world, but through two men, Palestine developed into a busy hub.
Within the Levant the history of the world was changed. Palestine is the birthplace of the worlds monotheistic religions, and has been at the heart of conflict through the ages.
Plato's philosophy that governments constantly change has wrung true throughout history. This article looks at the social causes of the rise of the tyranny of dictatorships.
In 1806, Napoleon Bonaparte's French armies invaded the Kingdom of Naples. When Joseph Bonaparte was installed as king the people revolted, in a prelude to the guerrilla war in Spain. Here's what you need to know about this insurrection.
History is written by the victors, but do victors always write the truth? War elephants are credited with being great weapons of war in Rome, but this was only true in the minds of the elephants' enemies. What's the truth?
History has many mysteries. Alexander the Great, born a Macedonian, has often been viewed by history as a Greek, but what was he really?
The Samnite Wars rocked the early Roman Republic. The Battle of Saticula was a near disaster for the Roman army, but the army (and maybe even the entire war) was saved by the actions of one Tribune. Read on for the full story of the Samnite Wars.
History is rife with conflict, and in war history changes in an instant. This is the story of what could have happened in the Battle of Hastings and how it would have affected England.
Gaul was home to the Gauls, who were major enemies of the Roman Republic. Julius Caesar united the disparate tribes under Rome, after which the conquest of the Gallic territory greatly affected Roman society and rule. But where was Gaul? What part of Europe was once Gaul? Read on to find out.
Julius Caesar is often considered a tyrant. This article argues that he was simply a popular leader living in a different and difficult time.
Does America have an empire? Historical examples of empires and why America is not one.
Henry II built an empire out of duchies and counties and became king of England to top it off. This article began as a reply to a question about the Angevin Empire but grew into a full-length piece. Here's everything you need to know about the Angevin Empire.
A look at feudalism, personal unions, and dual monarchy.
Summary of the use of flags and standards as military tools.
At the Battle of Chalons, Attila and his allied armies were defeated by the Roman general Aetius and his allies. This battle altered the balance of power in Gaul and Italy, and led to the ascendency of the Franks.
When Roman armies attempted to pacify Germany they were stopped at the Battle of Teutoburg Forest. Under Publius Quinctilius Varus the Romans launched their last campaign to conquer the Germans.
The term Dark Ages has long been used to describe the Middle Ages by the public as derogatory term, but the Medieval Period is important to the history of Europe for what it gave to Europe not for what was lost.
Alexander the Great was an amazing commander, but he was not the great general history sometimes sees.
The Battle of Hastings is well known in English history, but it greatly affected French history as well. Do you know the full story? Read on for the full historical tale.
An argument for Henry VII being the greatest monarch England has ever seen.
The Confederate States of America had a chance at winning the Civil War. This hub takes a look at what the world would have looked like if they had.
The Battle of Cynoscephalae secured Roman dominance of the Greek city-states and caused the decline and collapse of the independent Macedonian kingdom.
The Vandals were a Germanic tribe that crossed the length of the Roman Empire and sacked Rome.
The Visigothic kingdom of Tolosa was once the most powerful kingdom in Europe. This is their story.
The Battle of Zama ended the Punic Wars and left Rome the sole great power in the Mediterranean Sea. Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal and created a better world in his wake.
The history of how Scipio Africanus seized Hispania from the Carthaginian Republic while Hannibal invaded Italy through the Alps.
The Franks were the most successful of the barbarian peoples that invaded the Roman Empire, and they left a lasting mark on European history.
An overview of the successors to Alexander the Great's empire.
A review of Tacitus's historical works.
Comparison of the Barbary Wars and Libyan struggles for independence.
An overview of Napoleon's conquests and legacy.
An overview of the Swedish and Teutonic Crusades during the 13th and 14th centuries.
An overview of John of Gaunt, the last medieval man, by way of a review of Norman Cantor's "The Last Night." Here's everything you need to know about John Gaunt.