Alan Turing was a British mathematician and early computer scientist who had a fundamental role in the advancement of computer science. During World War II, Turing led a team of codebreakers to crack secret messages sent by the German military via the Enigma machine, thus shortening the war.
Steve Jobs, co-founder of the Apple Inc. company, was a legendary entrepreneur and business magnate who helped revolutionize the way we use personal electronics. From the early Apple I computer to the iPhone, Steve Jobs has had a lasting impact on modern culture.
Charles Babbage is best remembered for developing a steam-driven mechanical calculator in the nineteenth century known as the Difference Engine. Later he enhanced the design, like the modern programmable computer, that he called the Analytical Engine.
Plastics have transformed the world with many new and convenient products we use in our everyday life. However, this nearly indestructible wonder material is clogging our oceans and landfills and slowly working its way into our food chain.
James Butler Hickok, or “Wild Bill” as he came to be known, was a legendary gunfighter and lawman of the Old West. Hickok would become the prototype for the iron-clad plainsman who helped settle the nineteenth-century frontier of America.
William “Buffalo Bill” Cody was a nineteenth-century bison hunter, scout, and Indian fighter who turned into a showman and had a great influence on the modern view of the taming of the Old West.
Henry A. Wallace was an American statesman who served as the 33rd vice president of the United States, in office between 1941 and 1945. He also served as secretary of agriculture and secretary of commerce.
John Nance Garner was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 32nd Vice President of the United States between 1933 and 1941. He was a member of the Democratic Party with a long career in public service who also served as Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives.
Eleanor Roosevelt was First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945 as her husband, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, served as President of the United States for four consecutive terms. Throughout her husband’s long political career Eleanor became an influential political figure in the nation.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was an American statesman who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until 1945, winning four consecutive presidential elections. He is considered one of the greatest presidents in the history of the United States.
Conspiracy theories come and go; however, the second shooter theory in the assassination of presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy has valid points worthy of a closer look.
James Buchanan became president just before the United States plunged into the nation’s most deadly war between the pro-slavery southern states and the anti-slavery northern states. As the southern states seceded from the Union one by one in the last months of his presidency, he helplessly stood...
Some things never change, including sex and politics. The Cabinet of President Andrew Jackson was no different than it is today with swirling rumors of scandal and adultery. However, this affair would ruin the careers of those in the president’s inner circle.
Martin Van Buren was the eight president of the United States and played a key role in the establishment of the Democratic Party.
John C. Calhoun was a life-long politician who serve two terms as vice present. He was known for his pro-slavery and pro-Southern politics.
Andrew Jackson served as the seventh president of the United States after gaining fame as a general in the United States army and serving in both houses of Congress. During his two terms as president, he sought to act as the direct representative of the “common man.”
Turning 50 years old and not having enough money saved for your retirement is a scary thing. In this Hub I give some ideas to help you cope with your financial condition and prepare for a comfortable retirement.
Tecumseh was one of the greatest American Indians, a Shawnee chief known for his skills as an orator and his talents as a gifted statesman, and as a founder of a pan-Indian confederation.
With so many retirement savings options available, it is hard to pick the right one for you. This article covers the basics on IRAs, Roth IRAs, 401(k)s, Health Savings Accounts, and more.
The War of 1812, or as it is sometimes called “second war of independence,” was a military conflict between the United States and Great Britain, which started in 1812 and ended in 1815. Though no official borders changed as a result of the war, it did solidify America into one nation.
This article discusses when to start saving for retirement and how to maximize your investments.
John Quincy Adams, son of former president John Adams, was an American statesman who served as a diplomat, minister and ambassador to foreign nations, treaty negotiator, United States Senator, U.S. Representative from Massachusetts, and the sixth president of the United States from 1825 to 1829.
Technology and science are playing more important roles in sports around the world as teams and individuals are hunting for that extra performance boost or a technique that speeds injury recovery.
James Monroe was a Founding Father of the United States who served as the fifth President of the United States from 1817 to 1825. Monroe was the last president of the Virginia dynasty, and his presidency ushered in what is known as the Era of Good Feelings.
Thomas Jefferson was a man of many talents, as well as being the third president of the United States, he was an accomplished writer, architect, naturalist, inventor, diplomat, and educator.
Many regard the contributions to science of the 19th century Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell, as on par with Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein.
Like nearly every president before him, the first year of Donald Trump’s presidency has been marked by controversy, a few successes, and some failures.
The cryptocurrency Ripple (XRP) has become the number two digital currency by market capitalization. The price alone increased by 35,000 percent in 2017.
Ivanka Trump currently serves in the presidential administration as an advisor to the President of the United States. She is also a TV personality, author, businesswoman, and fashion designer.
Melania Trump is the current First Lady of the United States and wife of the 45th President of the United States, Donald Trump.
Donald Trump is an American businessman, television personality, and politician who became president of the United States in 2016.
A frontier doctor of the 19th century who was key to ending the spread of yellow fever and confirmed the theory that yellow fever is transmitted by a particular mosquito species, rather than by direct contact
Michael Faraday was an English scientist famous for his discoveries in electricity and electrochemistry.
Michelle Obama is an American lawyer who became First Lady of the United States when her husband Barack Obama was elected the 44th President of the United States.
Joe Biden was the 47th Vice President of the United States between 2009 and 2017. He is a member of the Democratic Party and represented Delaware in the U.S. Senator for six terms.
This is the second part of a two-part biography of Barack Obama covering his time as president of the United States and his retirement from public life.
This is part one of a two-part biography of Barack Obama, from his birth in Hawaii and his estrangement with his father, to his rise through the Illinois Senate until his arrival at the U.S. Senate.
“Black Monday,” as it came to be known, happened October 19, 1987, and is the day the stock market took its worst one-day drop in history. What were the causes, and will it happen again?
James Madison was the fourth president of the United States and one of main architects of the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights.
No other vice president has led such a troubled, complicated, unrestrained, and mysterious life as Aaron Burr.
John Marshall was important in the development of the legal system of the United States, helping to lay the basis for United States constitutional law and make the Supreme Court what it is today.
Benjamin Franklin was a man with many skills and talents. To name a few, he was an American Founding Father, a diplomat, scientist, inventor, author, and publisher.
With all the discussion of whether an athlete should kneel or stand during the singing of the National Anthem, it brings up the question - where did this song we all know come from?
Hillary Rodham Clinton, the wife of President Bill Clinton, served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001. This is a short biography of her time in that office.
A short biography of Hillary Rodham Clinton covering the years from her birth up through her years in Arkansas.
Bill Clinton was the 42th President of the United States.
The Peace silver dollar came into being through the vocal requests of coin collectors to commemorate the end of World War I. It was the last dollar coin to be made of silver for general circulation.
Whether you love it, hate it, or don’t know much about it, marijuana is becoming a part of many American’s lives. It's legal in many states for medical and recreational usage.
Wernher von Braun was a German-American aerospace engineer who was one of the founders of the space program in the United States.
Charles A. Lindbergh was an American aviator, inventor, and military officer known for making the first non-stop transatlantic flight from North America to mainland Europe.
Dr. Robert Goddard was an American physicist, engineer, inventor, and professor, mostly known for being the creator of the first liquid-fueled rocket.
Watergate was a major political scandal that rocked the 1970s. Starting with a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters and ultimately leading to the downfall of President Nixon.
Gerald R. Ford Jr. was an American politician who served as the 38th President of the United States from 1974 to 1977, following the resignation of Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon was the thirty-seventh President of the United States, in office between 1969 and 1974. Nixon had to resign due to the Watergate scandal and cover-up.
The Iran-Contra affair was a secret arrangement in the 80s to provide funds to the Nicaraguan Contra rebels from profits gained by selling arms to Iran during the administration of President Reagan.
Dan Quayle is an American politician who served as the 44th Vice President of the United States from 1989 to 1993, teaming with President George H.W. Bush.
The 1979 Iranian hostage crisis was an event that galvanized the nation as 52 Americans were held hostage for over a year in Iran.
President Ronald Reagan - the conservative icon who reshaped American politics and laid the groundwork for the end of the cold war.
Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and US President Jimmy Carter signed the Camp David Accords resolving a conflict that had gone on for decades.
John H. Glenn Jr. was an American aviator, engineer, astronaut, and United States Senator from Ohio. In 1962, he was the first American to orbit the Earth, circling it three times.
The words "In God We Trust" have been on United States money for over a century. How did this motto get on our money? - here is the story.
The former First Lady Rosalynn Carter along with her husband, Jimmy Carter, have been active with the Habitat for Humanity organization and the Carter Center.
Jimmy Carter - former president of the United States, peanut farmer, naval officer, humanitarian, Nobel Prize winner, and so much more. The story of this amazing man continues.
Mike Pence is an American politician who has been serving as the 50th Governor of Indiana since January 2013. He is currently the Vice President of the United States.
Alexander Hamilton was an American statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was an influential promoter of the U.S. Constitution and founded the nation's finacial system.
The United States Federal governement loves to spend money resulting in a large debt. Is this large national debt significant or should we worry?
The ship Admiral Gardner sank in a raging storm in 1809 sending to the bottom of the ocean thousands of copper coins that would take nearly two centuries to recover.
Presidential elections can bring big changes. But what effect, if any, does a presidential election have on the price of gold?
Put and Call Options can be used to help the investor protect their stock investments or can be used to generate income for the investor. This Hub is an introduction to equity options.
The shipwreck of the El Cazador with its vast silver coin hoard in 1784 would trigger a sequence of events which lead to America’s purchase of the vast track of land known as the Louisiana Territory.
The 2016 Mercury Dime Centennial Gold Coin. This is an event 100 years in the making. Beautifully struck in .9999 fine 24–karat gold and weights one-tenth of a Troy ounce.
The world's love affair with gold continues after five thousand years. Gold is rare and beautiful, but, where does it come from and what do we use it for?
What are the pros and cons of owning physical gold? It is a complex question this hub tries to address this question and present both sides of the issue.
A monetary system by which the value of a currency was defined in terms of gold, for which the currency could be exchanged. The gold standard was generally abandoned in the Depression of the 1930s.
Nearly everyone is a coffee drinker, but few know where it comes from. A short history of this magical hot black liquid.
Margaret Thatcher the first female prime minister of Britain, was a controversial leader of a conservative ideology during her time in office.
William the Conqueror made himself the mightiest noble in France and then changed the course of England’s history by his conquest of that country.
Angela Merkel has been the Chancellor of Germany since 2005, and the leader of the Christian Democratic Union since 2000.
The mathematician Norbert Wiener invented the field of cybernetics, inspiring a generation of scientists and engineers to think of computer technology as a means to extend human capabilities.
On July 13, 2016, Theresa May became the United Kingdom’s second female Prime Minister after Margaret Thatcher.
Error Lincoln cents are interesting and fun to collect. Type of errors include: clipped planchet, blank planchet, defective die, off-center strike, and broadstrike.
Selling books on Amazon is not as easy as writing a book and uploading it to the platform. New authors, especially, find sales to be few and far between. There are ways to improve your book sales.
Real Estate Investment Trusts (REIT) and Masters Limited Partnerships (MLP) are investment vehicles that typically return a higher than average dividend.
Bonds or bond funds should be an important part of every investors portfolio. They offer a steady return on your investment without the volitality of the stock market.
Tired of the bank CD’s paying less than one percent? Quality dividend-paying stocks can be an alternative to these low yields.
In today’s low-interest environment for investments, there is an alternative to the low rates, that is, high quality high yield dividend paying stocks.
Thomas Edison ranks as one of the greatest inventors that has walked the face of the earth. He is responsible for inventing many of the creature comforts we have come to enjoy in our daily lives.
Don’t get frustrated with all the information on stock market charts and tables. Learn the basics so you safely and profitably buy and sell stocks.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition opened up the western United States for settlers.
Jesse Owens - star athelete of the 1936 Berlin "Nazi" Olympic Games.
Humphrey Bogart was a star of the silver screen during the 1940's and 1950's. He acted in dozens of movies and was a house-hold name during his time.
Lauren Bacall was a great American actress who worked in the film industry for most of her life. She won numerous awards and stared in dozens of movies.
A woman who overcame tremendous odds to become a well known astronomer that help classify the stars.
Edward Pickering was instrumental in bring the systematic study of Astronomy to Harvard College Observatory.
Henrietta Leavitt was a female astronomer who overcame the handicap of deafness to make important discovers that led to our understanding of the scale of the universe.
Harlow Shapley was one of the most remarkable astronomers of his era. He helped us determine our place in the Universe.
Edmund Halley wasn't just a great astronomer he made important contributions to science in many areas.
An outstanding astronomer and scientist that advanced our understanding of comets and orbital theory.
NASA's Mars rover named Curiosity continues to roam the planet and gather valuable scientific information about the red planet.
These chunks of ice and rock are plentiful in the solar system and occasionally one makes a dramatic visit to the night sky.
An inspiring woman astronomer who, despite her handicap of being deaf, rose to prominence and contributed greatly to science.
Maria Mitchell was a trail blazer in her day. She was an accomplished astronomer and teacher and set an example for many young women.
Bitcoin is rapidly moving toward the main stream. Learn about buying and using this digital currency.
The latest orbiter to reach Mars was launched by the Indian government. The Indians are the latest member in a most exclusive club to reach the red planet, which includes Russia, Europe and the USA. Interestingly, they are the first nation to...
Percival Lowell was a tireless astronomer who added greatly to our understanding of Mars and started the search for the planet Pluto.
Edwin Hubble was an astronomer the made discoveries that fundamentally altered our understanding of the scale of the universe.
NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft will explore the Red Planet’s upper atmosphere, ionosphere and interactions with the sun and solar wind.
The two moons of Mars are large rocks that look like lumpy potatoes and their names are Phobos and Deimos.
It is often called the “Fourth Rock from the Sun” and is the last of the solid planets before we encounter the gas giants of Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus. Although we have no evidence either way, there is no reason to believe that rocky...
It is possible that the Sun could have a really minor tantrum and spit an insignificant portion of its mass at us and literally plunge us right back into the Dark Ages. No power; no lights; no computers, elevators, radio or television; no cars...
Getting started with your own eBook isn't as hard as you might think. Give it a try!
Audio books comprise the fastest growing sector of the publishing industry. This is not surprising at all, given the convenience offered to avid readers by the audio book platform.
Don't get duped when it comes to buying and selling silver bullion. Do it the right way—just like the pros do.
Twitter isn't only a means of connecting with your friends and family, it can be a valuable business asset to the word out about your product or service.
Twitter can be used to increase your market share.
The American Silver Eagle one-Troy-ounce silver coin is a very popular coin with silver collectors and investors. Tables list quantities minted by year and likely eBay prices.