There are four laws of thermodynamics that explain the flow and transformation of heat, energy, and work in thermal systems. Thermodynamics is key to understanding: steam or gas turbines, refrigeration compressors, internal combustion engines, turbojets, and rockets.
The German physicist Max Planck was the first to assume the quantization of energy to model the radiation emitted from a black body radiator. Other physicists, such as Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, used Planck’s idea to advance the study of atomic systems in what would become quantum mechanics.
J. Robert Oppenheimer was an academic physicist who was appointed head of the secret weapons laboratory at Los Alamos, New Mexico, which was part of the army’s Manhattan Project. He was the leader of the design, development, and construction of the first atomic bomb during World War II.
In 1814 the British invaded the city of Washington, D.C., as part of the War of 1812. Before the British could destroy the White House, the First Lady, Dolley Madison, with the help of her servants, saved the portrait of George Washington just hours before the British burned the president’s home.
The year 1992 was a terrible year for Queen Elizabeth II, or as she called it her “annus horribilis.” The year brought marital discord for her children, Prince Andrew, Prince Charles, and Anne, Princess Royal. To top it off, Windsor Castle suffered a massive fire.
Shays’ Rebellion was an uprising of farmers and Revolutionary War veterans over high taxes centered in Massachusetts during 1786 and1787. One of the prominent leaders of the rebellion was the former Continental Army Captain named Daniel Shays.
The appearance of the “new star” in November 1572, observed and reported upon by the famed astronomer Tycho Brahe, led to the revision of the ancient models of the heavens. The appearance of the new star challenged the Aristotelian dogma that the realm of the stars was unchanging.
Johannes Kepler was a 17th century German astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer best known for his three laws of planetary motion. His work laid the foundation for Isaac Newton’s theory of universal gravitation. Kepler was one of the key figures in the 17th century’s scientific revolution.
If you are a collector of United States large cent coins, you will have a gap in your coin album where an 1815 belongs. Just like in modern times, the story of the missing 1815 cent is a story of supply chain disruption caused by a war.
From the 15th through the 18th centuries, scientific thought underwent a revolution. The Aristotelian view of nature that had dominated science for almost 2,000 years was cast out. The Scientific Revolution brought forth a more rigorous method of scientific exploration.
The Mercury dime was minted from 1916 to 1945 and is a favorite among coin collectors. The purpose of this article is to give the coin collector, whether a novice or an expert, a basic understanding of the Mercury dime series, including the history of the series, major rarities, and pricing.
John Bartram was one of America’s earliest botanists and naturalists. His botanical garden, which is still enjoyed today, was established on his farm on the Schuylkill River near colonial Philadelphia. To gather rare plants and seeds for his garden, he traveled as far south as Florida.
The ancient Greek philosopher Plato’s Allegory of the Cave is one of the most read pieces of Western writing in history. The story of the prisoners trapped in a cave and their escape to the sunlight (knowledge) is from Plato’s masterwork, The Republic.
The second king of ancient Rome, Numa Pompilius, was known as a peaceful king who established many of the early Roman religious rites, ceremonies, and priesthoods. Numa is also credited with improving the Roman calendar and establishing office of pontifex maximus, the precursor to the pope.
Servius Tullius was the sixth king of ancient Rome, reigning from 578 to 535 BC. Tullius accomplished many things that benefited all Romans, especially the lower classes. He instituted a census, reorganized the military, and established the voting assembly that was more representative.
The United States Mercury dime is a coin loaded with symbolism. The front depicts Lady Liberty with a winged cap, symbolizing “freedom” of thought. The reverse features the ancient symbol of the fasces, signifying great power, and the olive branch of peace.
The Etruscans were a people of ancient Italy who occupied lands to the north and south of Rome. Their civilization lasted from roughly the 8th century BC to the 1st century BC, finally being incorporated into the Roman Empire.
Titus Livius, known in English as “Livy,” was a Roman citizen and writer who recorded some of the earliest accounts of ancient Rome in his massive work, History of Rome. To this historian, the modern world is forever indebted to his masterful recording of events of ancient Rome.
The mythical story of the twin brothers Romulus and Remus who founded the Roman Empire has been told and retold for generations. The first-century BC Roman historian, Livy, gives a detailed account of this legendary origin story of a nation that became the world’s first superpower.
The follis coin of the ancient Roman emperor Licinius I, who ruled the eastern kingdom of the Roman Empire from AD 308 to 324, is a fascinating coin and full of history. The obverse of the coin features a portrait of Licinius while the reverse has the god Jupiter, the goddess Victoria, and an eagle.
When America entered World War II with the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the country was immediately thrust into the war. With the war came rationing of all sorts of household staples: butter, sugar, meat, gasoline, and many more. The Office of Price Administration managed the rationing programs.
This article is an introduction to the U.S. Half Cent dating from 1809 to 1836 called the “Classic Head” design. The article provides the coin collector some basic information to get started collecting this series of U.S. half cents.
The Jefferson nickel series started in 1938 and is still in use today. Over the years the series has undergone many changes: the silver nickels during World War II, the 2004 and 2005 Westward Journey nickels, and finally today's facing portrait of Jefferson and Monticello.
To bring revenue into the state treasuries during the 1930s, states started issuing sales tax tokens to cover the tax due on small purchases. The state of Kansas issued two small metallic tokens used to pay the sales tax on inexpensive items purchased at stores throughout the state.
The Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. This important document proclaimed to the world that the original 13 American colonies were free from British rule.
Born in colonial Pennsylvania, Benjamin West showed early talent as an artist. He traveled to Italy to study under master artists as a young man. He quickly became one of England's leading painters of the 18th century.
Barber dimes, or “Liberty Head” dimes as they are also called, were minted from 1892 to 1916 and are popular with coin collectors. The purpose of this article is to give Barber dime collectors a basic understanding of the series, including the history, major rarities, and tips for collecting.
John Forbes Nash, Jr. was a brilliant mathematician who rose to the top of his field and was struck down in the prime of his life by the debilitating mental illness of paranoid schizophrenia. After decades of treatment for his illness, he emerged to become a great mathematician once again.
André Marie Ampère was a French physicist and mathematician who made important contributions to the fields of chemistry, philosophy, and electromagnetism. He is most remembered for discovering the quantitative link between the two then-mysterious forces of electricity and magnetism.
King George III of Great Britain has been portrayed as a ruthless and insane king who fought to keep the rebellious colonists within the British Empire during the American Revolutionary War. However, there is much more to the story as he was a man of many talents.
On May 1, 1960, CIA pilot Francis Gary Powers was shot down deep inside the Soviet Union. The recovered cameras from the wreckage of a U-2 spy plane and the pilot's capture caused an international incident, deepening the Cold War divide between the Soviet Union and the United States.
The silver shilling coin minted during the reign of King James I of Great Britain is an interesting coin full of history. The coin doesn’t have a date, but we know it was minted in 1605 or 1606 in London.
Dwight D. Eisenhower served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961. During his eight years in office, many major events occurred throughout the country and the world, including: the Korean War, the Space Race, the Vietnam War, the Civil Rights Movement, and much more.
Mamie Eisenhower was the wife of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the 34th president of the United States. During her eight years as First Lady, she was very popular with the public and known as a wonderful hostess for White House functions.
King George I of Great Britain, Scotland, and Ireland is often called the “lucky king” because of the string of events that brought the German-born prince to the throne of Britain. During his reign, the power of the monarch diminished, while the modern system of British government arose.
Late in the 18th century, the British colonists living in North America began to rebel due to the harsh treatment they were receiving from the British. Delegates from the colonies came together in Philadelphia in 1774 to form the 1st Continental Congress to deal with the British aggression.
Encased coins are coins mounted in a custom-made holder and used as good luck charms and advertising souvenirs. This article introduces the different types of encased coins and gives estimates on their valuations.
Martha Washington, the wife of the first president of the United States, George Washington, established many of the customs that were followed by First Ladies for generations in the White House.
The ancient Greek scholar named Anaximander was the author of the first surviving passage of Western philosophy. He made one of the earliest attempts at a rational explanation of the origin of the universe and did fundamental work in the fields of astronomy, geography, biology, and philosophy.
The ancient Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus was believed to be the first philosopher of the Western tradition. His work laid the groundwork for the advancement of philosophy and ultimately the development of the sciences.
The ancient Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle touched upon nearly every area of the physical world, from biology to astronomy. In the field of human endeavor, his interests and writing varied from ethics to political science.
The first coins were struck in ancient Lydia, modern-day Turkey, in about the seventh century BC. These early coins were made of a mixture of gold and silver called electrum. From that point, the production of coinage spread rapidly throughout Europe and Asia.
Plato has been hailed as one of the most dazzling writers in the Western literary tradition and one of the most influential authors in the history of philosophy. In ancient Athens, Plato established the Academy, the first school of higher education in the Western world.
The ancient philosopher Socrates lived in Athens during the Golden Age of Athens and is credited with laying the philosophical foundations of Western culture. He is known as the “father of Western philosophy” for his contributions. The philosopher Plato was his follower.
The year 1918 was a tragic year for America and the world, as an influenza pandemic known as the Spanish flu swept the globe, leaving millions dead in its wake. This article details the timeline of this horrific event in the history of mankind.
In the 6th century BCE in ancient Greece, a man named Pythagoras started a cult with hundreds of followers sworn to secrecy, lived an ascetic lifestyle, and studied mathematics, music, and astronomy. Today, he is most remembered for his proof of the Pythagorean Theorem's geometric formula.
George Washington, the first president of the United States, had many challenges in building a new nation. Nevertheless, he accomplished many things during his eight years as president: defining the role of a president, setting up a national bank, levying taxes, and quelling a rebellion.
George Washington was the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War with Great Britain. Washington’s cunning and tenacity as a general was key to America gaining independence from Britain.
George Washington started his military career during the beginning of the French and Indian War as a Virginia militia officer. He was forced to surrender Fort Necessity to the French and helped rally the troops after the death of General Braddock during the Battle of the Monongahela.
The pamphlet "Common Sense," written by Thomas Paine in 1776, with the assistance of the patriot leader Dr. Benjamin Rush, was one of the deciding factors that prompted the colonists in America to take up arms and seek independence from Great Britain.
The Declaration of Independence, written in 1776, is one of the founding documents of the United States. This timeline describes the important events associated with the Declaration, which are illustrated with U.S. postage stamps.
The 1921 Missouri Centennial commemorative half dollar coin was minted to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the state of Missouri’s entrance into the United States in 1821 as the 24th state. The coin features Daniel Boone on the obverse.
Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin was a pioneering astrophysicist and one of the preeminent women astronomers of all time. During the 1920s she derived the cosmic abundance of the elements from stellar spectra and demonstrated for the first time that hydrogen and helium were the most abundant elements.
Observations of the moons of Jupiter and the phases of Venus in 1610 made by the Italian inventor and scientist Galileo Galilei using a small telescope brought further evidence of the reality of Nicolaus Copernicus’ sun-centered universe model.
You've heard of Christopher Columbus, but do you know the timeline of important events in his life? The period covered is from his birth in 1451 to his death in 1506. The events are illustrated with United States Postage Stamps and coins.
Though Christopher Columbus, the 15th century Italian explorer and navigator, was not the first European to discover North America, he was the first to map parts of two new continents and begin the process of Spanish colonization of the New World. Columbus made four voyages to the Americas.
This timeline of the stock market crash of 1929 gives a chronology of events, quotes from individuals involved in the markets, Dow Jones Industrial Average pricing information, economic data from the 1920s and 1930s, and major newspaper headlines that tell the story of the market crash.
Herbert Hoover, who was the thirty-first president of the United States, was known as the Great Engineer and the Great Humanitarian for his efforts before he became president. After his presidency, he is remembered for the Great Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the start of the Great Depression.
The epic story of the journey across a vast ocean and a life and death struggle for survival of a small band of religious zealots in an unknown new land is the story of the Pilgrims and the birth of Plymouth Colony in New England. They celebrated America's first Thanksgiving in fall of 1621.
The area around Boston began to boom in the 1630s when thousands of emigrants came from England seeking a new life. A group of religious refugees, the Puritans, founded Massachusetts Bay Colony, which was the beginning of modern-day New England.
The war between Mexico and the United States, fought from 1846 to 1848, cost Mexico nearly half their territory and opened western North America to U.S. expansion. This was a war of conquest to fulfill the promise of “Manifest Destiny.”
Franklin Pierce, the 14th president of the United States, was ill-prepared to lead a nation on the verge of civil war. His support of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill brought bloody turmoil to Kansas and opened the door to slavery in the West.
The state of Texas has the unique distinction of being the only state to enter the Union as an independent nation, the Republic of Texas. The issues of slavery and potential war with Mexico would delay Texas from becoming the 28th state in the Union until 1845.
Winfield Scott was an American army officer who served in military conflicts from the War of 1812 through the Civil War. Scott served under presidents from Thomas Jefferson to Abraham Lincoln and built the U.S. Army from a small disorganized group to a disciplined professional force.
Margaret Taylor was the wife of American President Zachary Taylor, who served in the White House from March 1849 until his sudden death in July of 1850. Mrs. Taylor suffered from ill health much of her life and shied away from the Washington, D.C., social spotlight.
The Morgan silver dollar minted from 1878 to 1921 is the most widely collected United States coin of that era. They were minted in large quantites and are still available to collectors today. This article has tips and helpful information on collecting these treasures of yesteryear.
A Serbian-born inventor and engineer, Nikola Tesla is known for his many inventions, particularly the modern alternating-current (AC) electricity motors and generators. His forceful mind also invented early versions of the radio, robots, and remote control.
Vice President Millard Fillmore became president upon the sudden death of President Zachary Taylor in 1850. Fillmore inherited the heated debate over the spread of slavery, which culminated in a series of laws known as the Compromise of 1850.
Andrew Johnson was sworn in as president of the United States after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Johnson quickly made many enemies in Congress and became the first president to face an impeachment trial in the Senate.
The framers of the U.S. Constitution allowed a method to remove a sitting president or other civil officers from public office through the process of impeachment. In September 2019, the Speaker of the House announced that formal impeachment hearings would begin against President Donald Trump.
Inventor, scientist, and architect are among the many titles that the brilliant and highly productive seventeenth century scientist Robert Hooke has been given. He was a man of many talents who made discoveries in diverse fields of science and technology.
Sir Isaac Newton has been hailed as one of the greatest minds the world has ever known, revolutionizing the sciences of physics and mathematics. His masterwork, the Principia, is one of the most important works of the science of all time.
Born into slavery, Frederick Douglass would eventually escape his bondage and go on to be one of the most influential African Americans. Douglass was also a supporter of women's suffrage, the abolitionist cause, and held several public offices.
Nicolaus Copernicus was a Polish priest and astronomer in the 16th century. He took the bold step of placing the sun at the center of the solar system instead of the earth--Heliocentric model. His most famous work is "On the Revolutions of Celestial Spheres" published in 1532.
The radical abolitionist John Brown, who many said was insane, led a small group of men to attack the U.S. military arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, in 1859. Many have regarded this bold act as the spark that ignited the American Civil War.
George Washington Carver is one of America’s best-known agricultural chemists, educators, and botanists. He invented hundreds of agricultural products that are in use today and helped lift many southern farm families out of poverty through his extension work.
The American patriot leader John Hancock was a wealthy New England importer and exporter of all types of goods. In 1768 he was accused of smuggling, and his ship the Liberty was seized by the British. This incident would add fuel to the already smoldering fire that became the American revolution.
Samuel Adams was an early patriot leader who led the British colonists into the American Revolutionary War and was key in setting up the new government of the United States.
John Quincy Adams was diplomat, secretary of state, and sixth president of the United States during the early nineteenth century. Though his term as president was undistinguished, his service as a diplomat and congressman were exceptional.
Melania Trump and Louisa Catherine Adams are the only two first ladies of the United States born outside the country. Louisa was the wife of President John Quincy Adams; her many talents included her ability to socialize in the highest circles, as well as being the woman behind the man.
John Adams was a one of the founding fathers of America—an important leader who helped the colonies gain freedom from Great Britain. In the new republic, he served as a diplomat to European nations, the first vice president, and the second president of the United States from 1797 to 1801.
Counterfeit coins have always been a problem for coin collectors. This article has some basic tips to help you avoid getting ripped off by purchasing fake or altered coins. A little knowledge about avoiding counterfeit coins can save you a lot of money. In China it is legal to make fake U.S. coins.
During the four-year term of President James K. Polk, America grew to encompass the land from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans. Many felt this great expansion of the country was the providence of God and the fulfillment of America’s Manifest Destiny.
Alfred Nobel was a Swedish chemist, industrialist, inventor of dynamite, and founder of the Nobel Prize. Since the first Nobel Prize was awarded in 1901, nearly a thousand winners have each won world renown and a small fortune for their hard work and creativity.
Two 1864 Civil War letters dated 1865 give us insight into the lives to two Pennsylvania families, the Riders and the Zieglers. While the men fought to preserve the Union, the mother and wife waited at home hoping and praying for the safety of their men.
A quick and easy board and batten style DIY project to update your home entryway. The whole project cost fewer than $100 and took only a few hours.
Born on her family’s private island in Long Island Sound, Julia Gardiner would go on to marry the tenth president of the United States, John Tyler. Though her stay at the White House was only eight months, the young beauty would leave a lasting mark on the Washington social scene.
In July of 1969, the spacecraft Apollo 11 made an epic journey to the moon with three brave astronauts aboard. The space flight culminated when the astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin made an historic walk on the surface of the moon.
President Kennedy set a lofty goal of putting a man on the moon before the end of the 1960s. This is the story of the Apollo Program leading up to the moon landing of Apollo 11. During the 1960s, the National Aerunautics and Space Administration (NASA) expanded rapidly to put a man on the moon.
Michael Collins was the pilot of the Command Module "Columbia" on the journey of the three-man crew to the moon during the epic 1969 Apollo 11 mission. This is his story.
The presidential election of 1840 turned out to be a sea change in the way campaigns were run. All the modern tricks, such as avoiding the issues, telling the people what they wanted to hear, and of course parades, parties, and cheap whiskey, would become the norm.
Many books, articles, and even a television series tell of the many exciting exploits of the legendary frontiersman Daniel Boone, however, many embellish his accomplishments. It would be over a century after his death before his real story would emerge.
The chemist and publisher William Crookes was a well-known figure in the scientific community in Britain during the nineteenth century. In addition to his work as a scientist, he conducted controversial investigations into spiritualism, trying to reconcile the spiritual and physical worlds.
The farm boy from New Zealand, Ernest Rutherford, would go on to uncover the inner mysteries of the atom and become the father of nuclear physics.
J.J. Thomson discovered the electron in 1897 and led the Cavendish Laboratory into a world-class research institution. His work opened the field of subatomic physics to experimental investigation and helped unravel the inner workings of the atom. He developed the "plum pudding" model of the atom.
Buzz Aldrin is an American U.S. Air Force pilot and astronaut who took part in the historic Apollo 11 mission, during which he became the second person to step onto the lunar surface. Prior to Apollo 11, Aldrin was prime crew of NASA’s Gemini 12 mission.
The physicist and chemist Marie Curie’s work with radiation paved the way for the development of nuclear physics and cancer therapy. She overcame many challenges to become the only women to have received two Nobel Prizes for her work.
Neil Armstrong, history’s most famous space traveler, learned to fly at a young age and loved it. He honed his flying skills in the cockpit of a jet fighter during the Korean War and ultimately took humanity’s first step on the moon.
The Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in 1961 was a failed attempt by Cuban exiles who were organized, financed, and led by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency to overthrow the revolutionary regime of Premier Fidel Castro.
The South-African-born entrepreneur Elon Musk is known for founding the electric car company Tesla, and SpaceX, which launched a rocket that sent the first commercial vehicle to the International Space Station. Musk is now the richest person in the world.
The Cuban Missile Crisis was a confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union in October 1962 over Soviet nuclear-capable missiles in Cuba. The conflict ended with the Soviets removing the missiles, and nuclear war was averted.
Alexander Graham Bell was the Scottish-born inventor, scientist, and innovator credited with inventing the first practical telephone, helping improve the lives of the deaf, and founding the Amercian Telephone and Telegraph Company (now AT&T) in 1885.
Alan Turing was a British mathematician and early computer scientist who had a fundamental role in the advancement of computer science. During World War II, Turing led a team of codebreakers to crack secret messages sent by the German military via the Enigma machine, thus shortening the war.
Steve Jobs, co-founder of the Apple Inc. company, was a legendary entrepreneur and business magnate who helped revolutionize the way we use personal electronics. From the early Apple 1 computer to the iPhone, Steve Jobs has had a lasting impact on modern culture.
Charles Babbage is best remembered for developing a steam-driven mechanical calculator, known as the Difference Engine, in the 19th century. He later enhanced the design, like the modern programmable computer, which he called the Analytical Engine. Ada Lovelace later assisted him with his work.
Plastics have transformed the world with many new and convenient products we use in our everyday life. However, this nearly indestructible wonder material is clogging our oceans and landfills and slowly working its way into our food chain. Efforts are being made to recycle plastics.
James Butler Hickok, or “Wild Bill” as he came to be known, was a legendary gunfighter and lawman of the Old West. Hickok would become the prototype for the tough plainsman who helped settle the nineteenth-century frontier of America.
William “Buffalo Bill” Cody was a nineteenth-century bison hunter, scout, and fighter who turned into a showman and had a great influence on the modern view of the taming of the Old West. He fought for the Union during the Civil War and became a civilian scout for the US Army after the war.
Henry A. Wallace was an American statesman who served as the 33rd vice president of the United States from 1941 to 1945 under Presdient Franklin D. Roosevelt. He also served as Secretary of Agriculture and Secretary of Commerce.
John Nance Garner was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 32nd Vice President of the United States between 1933 and 1941. He was a member of the Democratic Party with a long career in public service who also served as Speaker of the United States House of Representatives.
Eleanor Roosevelt was First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945 as her husband, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, served as President of the United States for four consecutive terms. Throughout her husband’s long political career Eleanor became an influential political figure in the nation.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was an American statesman who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until 1945, winning four consecutive presidential elections. He led America through the Great Depression and during World War II.
Conspiracy theories come and go; however, the second shooter theory in the assassination of presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy has valid points worthy of a closer look.
James Buchanan became president just before the United States plunged into the nation’s most deadly war between the pro-slavery southern states and the anti-slavery northern states. As the southern states seceded from the Union one by one in the last months of his presidency, he helplessly stood by.
Some things never change, including sex and politics in the nation's capitol. The Cabinet of President Andrew Jackson was no different than it is today with swirling rumors of scandal and adultery. However, the Petticoat Affair would ruin the careers of those in the president’s inner circle.
Martin Van Buren was the 8th president of the United States from 1837 to 1841. and played a key role in the establishment of the Democratic Party. In 1840, Van Buren lost his re-election bid to William Henry Harrison, the nominee of the Whig Party.
John C. Calhoun was a life-long politician form South Carolina who serve two terms as vice present from 1825 to 1832. He was known for his pro-slavery and pro-Southern politics.
Andrew Jackson served as the seventh president of the United States after gaining fame as a general in the United States army and serving in both houses of Congress. During his two terms as president, he sought to act as the direct representative of the “common man.”
Turning 50 years old and not having enough money saved for your retirement is a scary thing. In this article, I offer some ideas to help you cope with your financial condition and prepare for a comfortable retirement.
Tecumseh was one of the greatest American Indians, a Shawnee chief known for his skills as an orator and his talents as a gifted statesman, and as a founder of a Native American confederation and promoted intertribal unity.
With so many retirement savings options available, it is hard to pick the right one for you. This article covers the basics on IRAs, Roth IRAs, 401(k)s, Health Savings Accounts, and more.
The War of 1812, or as it is sometimes called the “second war of independence,” was a military conflict between the United States and Great Britain, which started in 1812 and ended in 1815. Though no official borders changed as a result of the war, it did solidify America into one nation.
This article discusses when to start saving for retirement and how to maximize your investments.
Technology and science are playing more important roles in sports around the world, as teams and individuals are hunting for that extra performance boost or a technique that speeds injury recovery.
James Monroe was a Founding Father of the United States who served as the fifth President of the United States from 1817 to 1825. Monroe was the last president of the Virginia dynasty, and his presidency ushered in what is known as the Era of Good Feelings.
Thomas Jefferson was a man of many talents. In addition to being the third president of the United States, he was an accomplished writer, architect, naturalist, inventor, diplomat, and educator. Additionally, he was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence.
Many regard the contributions to science of the 19th-century Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell, as on par with Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein. He developed the classical theory of electromagnetic radiation which quantified the relationship between electricity, magnetism and light.
Like nearly every president before him, the first year of Donald Trump’s presidency was marked by controversy, a few successes, and some failures.
The cryptocurrency Ripple (XRP) has become the number two digital currency by market capitalization. The price alone increased by 35,000 percent in 2017.
Ivanka Trump currently serves in the presidential administration as an advisor to the President of the United States. She is also a TV personality, author, businesswoman, and fashion designer.
Melania Trump was the First Lady of the United States as wife of the 45th President of the United States, Donald Trump, from 2017 to 2021. She was born in Novo Mesto, Slovenia, in 1970 and worked as a model and businesswoman.
Donald Trump is an American businessman, television personality, and politician who was the 45th president of the United States from 2017 and 2020..
Dr. Walter Reed was a frontier doctor of the 19th century who was key to ending the spread of yellow fever and confirmed the theory that yellow fever is transmitted by a particular mosquito species, rather than by direct contact. The Walter Reed National Military Medical Center is named after him.
Michael Faraday was an English scientist famous for his discoveries in electricity and electrochemistry.
Michelle Obama is an American lawyer who became First Lady of the United States when her husband Barack Obama became president. She served two terms as First Lady from 2007 to 2019 and was the first African-American woman in that position.
Joe Biden was the 47th Vice President of the United States between 2009 and 2017. He is a member of the Democratic Party and represented Delaware in the U.S. Senator for six terms. On November 2, 2020, Joe Biden became the 46th president of the United States.
This is the second part of a two-part biography of Barack Obama covering his time as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017 and his retirement from public life.
This is part one of a two-part biography of Barack Obama, from his birth in Hawaii and his estrangement with his father, to his rise through the Illinois Senate until his arrival at the U.S. Senate.
“Black Monday,” as it came to be known, happened on October 19, 1987. It was the day the stock market took its worst one-day percentage drop in history. The crash was not limited to the U.S. as all the major world markets also had significant losses. What were the causes, and will it happen again?
James Madison was the fourth president of the United States and one of main architects of the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights. Before becoming president, he was the secretary of state of President Thomas Jefferson. He is one of the Founding Fathers of the Untied States of America.
No other vice president has led such a troubled, complicated, unrestrained, and mysterious life as Aaron Burr. The famous and deadly duel between Burr and Alexander Hamilton in 1804 sealed his place in the annals of American History.
John Marshall was important in the development of the legal system of the United States, helping to lay the basis for United States constitutional law and make the Supreme Court what it is today. He served as the fourth Chief Justice of the United States from 1801 to 1835.
Benjamin Franklin was a man with many skills and talents. To name a few, he was an American Founding Father, a diplomat, scientist, inventor, author, and publisher. He is one of the founding fathers of the United States of America.
With all the discussion of whether an athlete should kneel or stand during the singing of the National Anthem, it brings up the question—where did this song we all know come from? The National Anthem was written during the War of 1812 to celebrate the resilience of Americans.
Hillary Rodham Clinton, as wife of President Bill Clinton, served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001. This is a short biography of her life and accomplishments during those eight years in the White House as the First Lady.
A short biography of Hillary Rodham Clinton, the wife of Bill Clinton, covering the years from her birth up through her years in Arkansas. She was interested in politics as early as high school.
Bill Clinton was the 42th President of the United States. from 1993 to 2001. He previously served as governor and attorney general of Arkansas. Clinton became the second U.S. president to be impeached after Andrew Johnson.
The Peace silver dollar came into being through the vocal requests of coin collectors to commemorate the end of World War I. It was the last dollar coin to be made of silver for general circulation.
Whether you love it, hate it, or don’t know much about it, marijuana is becoming a part of many American’s lives. It's legal in many states for medical and recreational usage.
Wernher von Braun was a German-American aerospace engineer who was one of the founders of the space program in the United States.
Charles A. Lindbergh was an American aviator, inventor, and military officer known for making the first non-stop transatlantic flight from North America to mainland Europe. In 1932, Lindbergh's infant son was kidnapped and murdered in what the American media called the "Crime of the Century."
Dr. Robert Goddard was an American physicist, engineer, inventor, and professor, remembered for being the creator of the first liquid-fueled rocket. Known as the "Father of the Space Age," Goddard made is first successful liquid-fueled rocket in March 1926.
Watergate was a major political scandal that rocked the 1970s. Starting with a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters and ultimately leading to the resignation of President Richard Nixon.
Gerald R. Ford Jr. was an American politician who served as the 38th President of the United States from 1974 to 1977, following the resignation of Richard Nixon. Prior to the being president, he served in the House of Representatives and as vice president of the United States.
Richard Nixon was the thirty-seventh President of the United States, in office between 1969 and 1974. Nixon rose to national prominence as a representative and senator from California. He resigned from the presidency because of his involvement in the Watergate scandal and cover-up.
The Iran-Contra affair was a secret arrangement in the 1980s to provide funds to the Nicaraguan Contra rebels from profits gained by selling arms to Iran during the administration of President Reagan. The ensuing scandal was a black mark on the Reagan presidency.
Dan Quayle is an American politician who served as the 44th Vice President of the United States from 1989 to 1993, teaming with President George H.W. Bush.
The 1979 Iranian hostage crisis was an event that galvanized the nation as 52 Americans were held hostage for over a year in Iran. The drama drug for 444 days to become a major international event and soured the relationship between the United States and Iran.
President Ronald Reagan was a conservative icon who reshaped American politics and laid the groundwork for the end of the Cold War.
Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and United States President Jimmy Carter signed the Camp David Accords in 1979, resolving a conflict between Israel and Egypt that had gone on for decades.
John H. Glenn Jr. was an American aviator, engineer, astronaut, and United States Senator from Ohio. In 1962, he was the first American to orbit the Earth, circling it three times. He set another record in 1998, at age 77, when he became the oldest human to journey into space.
The words "In God We Trust" have been on United States money for over a century, first appearing on the 1864 Two Cent coin. How did this motto get on our money? - here is the story.
The former First Lady Rosalynn Carter along with her husband, Jimmy Carter, have been active with the Habitat for Humanity organization and the Carter Center. During her years in the White House, she was active in politics, even sitting in on Cabinet meetings.
Jimmy Carter served as the 39th president of the United States. His presidency was embattled by the energy crisis, a Cold War with the Soviet Union, and civil unrest in America. The American Hostage Crisis in Iran was the turning point that cost him a second term as president.
Mike Pence is an American politician who has been serving as the 50th Governor of Indiana from 2013 to 2017. He served as the 48th vice president of the United States from 2017 to 2021.
Alexander Hamilton was an American statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was an influential promoter of the U.S. Constitution and founded the nation's financial system. He died in a duel with Arron Burr in 1804.
The United States federal government loves to spend taxpayer money, resulting in a large and growing national debt. Where does all the money come from and where does it go? What is the difference between debt and deficit? Is this large national debt not important, or should we worry?
The ship Admiral Gardner sank in a raging storm in 1809 sending it to the bottom of the ocean along with thousands of copper coins that would take nearly two centuries to recover.
Put and Call Options can be used to help the investor protect their stock investments or can be used to generate income for the investor. This article is an introduction to equity options.
The shipwreck of the El Cazador, with its vast silver coin hoard in 1784, would trigger a sequence of events which led to America’s purchase of the vast tract of land known as the Louisiana Territory.
The 2016 Mercury Dime Centennial Gold Coin. This is an event 100 years in the making. Beautifully struck in .9999 fine 24–karat gold and weighs one-tenth of a Troy ounce.
The world's love affair with gold continues after five thousand years. Gold is rare and beautiful, but where does it come from and what do we use it for? China is the world's largest producer of gold and most of the newly discovered gold goes to making jewelry.
What are the pros and cons of owning physical gold? This article addresses this question and presents both sides of the issue. Gold has traditionally been a hedge against inflation and stock market uncertainty.
The gold standard was a monetary system by which the value of a currency was defined in terms of gold, for which the currency could be exchanged. The gold standard was generally abandoned in the Depression of the 1930s.
Nearly everyone is a coffee drinker, but few know where it comes from. Here's a short history of this magical hot black liquid. Coffee has been a favorite drink since the 15th century. Whether you like it hot or on ice, people from Europe and North America drink over 10 pounds per year.
Margaret Thatcher the first female prime minister of Britain, was a controversial leader of a conservative ideology during her time in office. She served as prime minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
William the Conqueror, sometimes known as William the Bastard, made himself the mightiest noble in France and then changed the course of England’s history by his conquest of that country. He reigned in England from 1066 until his death in 1087.
Angela Merkel has been the Chancellor of Germany since 2005, and the leader of the Christian Democratic Union since 2000. She is the first female Chancellor of Germany.
The mathematician Norbert Wiener invented the field of cybernetics, inspiring a generation of scientists and engineers to think of computer technology as a means to extend human capabilities. He was on the faculty in the Department of Mathematics at MIT from 1919 until his death in 1964.
On July 13, 2016, Theresa May became the United Kingdom’s second female Prime Minister after Margaret Thatcher. She served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and head of the Conservative Party from 2016 to 2019.During the Cameron government she served as Home Secretary from 2010 to 2016.
Error Lincoln cent coins are interesting and fun to collect. Type of errors include: clipped planchet, blank planchet, defective die, off-center strike, and broadstrike.
Selling books on Amazon is not as easy as writing a book and uploading it to the platform. New authors, especially, find sales to be few and far between. There are ways to improve your book sales.
Real Estate Investment Trusts (REIT) and Master Limited Partnerships (MLP) are investment vehicles that typically return a higher than average dividend yield, great for retirees. Learn about some of the benefits and risks of investing in REITs and MLPs.
Bonds or bond funds should be an important part of every investor's portfolio. They offer a steady return on your investment without the volatility of the stock market. The value of bonds typically decreases when interest rates rise, the opposite is true when rates fall.
Tired of the bank CD’s paying less than one percent? Quality dividend-paying stocks can be an alternative to these low yields.
In today’s low-interest environment for investments, there is an alternative to the low rates, that is, high quality high yield dividend paying stocks. This article goes over the basic concepts necessary to invest in quality dividend paying stocks.
Thomas Edison ranks as one of the greatest inventors of all time; holding over 1,000 US patents. He is responsible for inventing many of the wonderful devices we have come to enjoy in our daily lives: the phonograph, an improved light bulb, dictating machine, electrical power distribution, and...
Don’t get frustrated with all the information on stock market charts and tables; learn the basics so you can safely and profitably buy and sell stocks. Some of the terms covered in the article: bid, ask, volume, earnings, open, close, dividends, P/E, EPS, and more...
The Lewis and Clark Expedition, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, opened up the western United States for settlers. The group was under the command of Captain Meriwether Lewis and his close friend Second Lieutenant William Clark.
Jesse Owens was the star athlete of the 1936 Berlin "Nazi" Olympic Games. A four-time gold medalist, he is one of the most celebrated U.S. track and field athletes in history. Adolf Hitler attended the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin and watched Owens compete.
Humphrey Bogart was a star of the silver screen during the 1940's and 1950's. He acted in dozens of movies and was a house-hold name during his time. The movies Casablanca and The African Queen were two of his most popular movies.
Lauren Bacall was a great American actress who worked in the film industry for most of her life. She won numerous awards and stared in dozens of movies. She also stared in Broadway musicals, earning Tony Awards.
A woman who overcame tremendous odds to become a well known astronomer that help classify the stars and become the Curator of Astronomical Photographs at Harvard College Observatory.
Edward Pickering was instrumental in bring the systematic study of Astronomy to Harvard College Observatory. He co-discovered the first spectroscopic binary stars. He was the dominant figure of American astronomy at the turn of the 20th century.
Henrietta Leavitt was a female astronomer who overcame the handicap of deafness to make important discovers that led to our understanding of the scale of the universe. She is most remembered for her discover of the relationship between the luminosity and the period of Cepheid variables.
Harlow Shapley was one of the most remarkable astronomers of his era. He helped us determine mankind's place in the Universe. He was the head of the Harvard College Observatory from 1921 to 1952 and political activist during the administration of President Franklin Roosevelt.
Edmund Halley wasn't just a great astronomer. He made important contributions to science in many areas as well, such as mathematics and geology. He was the astronomer royal for England and, under his leadership, the Greenwich Observatory rose to prominence in the early 18th century.
Fred Whipple was an outstanding astronomer and scientist that advanced our understanding of comets and orbital theory. He proposed the icy conglomerate, or "dirty snowball," hypothesis of comet composition.
NASA's Mars car-sized rover named Curiosity continues to roam the planet and gather valuable scientific information about the red planet. To goals of the rover are to explore the planet, investigate the geology and climate, and determine the role water has played in the evolution of planet.
Comets, chunks of dust, ice, and rock, are plentiful in the solar system and occasionally one makes a dramatic visit to the night sky. As their orbit draws them closer to the Sun, they heat up and spew gases and dust into a glowing head that can be larger than a planet.