After the gut, the human oral cavity has the second largest and diverse microbiota, (also called microbiome or microflora), harboring over 700 species of bacteria. The numerous microorganisms, which thrive in the mouth, include bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa.
Aging is a natural process. Everyone has to undergo this in life at his or her own pace. Aging is influenced by the dynamic changes in physiological, environmental, psychological, behavioral, and social processes. It results in declines in the functions of senses and activities of daily life and inc
The dictionary meaning of self-confidence is the confidence in oneself and one's powers and abilities. But it is more than that. It is an attitude about your skills and abilities.
Auto-suggestion is a psychological technique that involves a form of self-induced suggestion in which individuals guide their own thoughts, feelings, or behavior to bring about the specific changes in themselves. We all have been using auto-suggestion techniques our whole life. For instance, if you
Positive thinking is a mental and emotional attitude of expecting good in everything and not getting discouraged when plans do not progress as expected. It is an attitude of focusing on the good and positive in a situation.
Spirituality implies an adherence to a spiritual philosophy, which espouses a sense of connection to something bigger than us. It considers one's relationship with the self, others, nature, and whatever else one considers to be the ultimate.
Covid-19 is a novel disease recognized initially in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019. It is likely caused by the zoonotic spillover of a beta-coronavirus type 2B that is transmitted between humans.
A bias is an inclination or prejudice toward or against something or someone. It is mostly learned and is highly dependent on variables like a person’s sex, socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, educational background, etc.
The impact of the Covid-19 crisis on health has been phenomenal worldwide. Despite a very high number of deaths and resultant complications all over the world, the Covid-19 crisis has also been responsible for many suicidal deaths.
The immune system is a defense system, which comprises of many biological structures and processes within an organism that protect against disease. Basically, there are two major sub-systems of the immune system: the innate immune system and the adaptive immune system.
Marriage has been described as the most important and fundamental human relationship because it provides the primary structure for establishing a family relationship. Although marriage seems to be a highly desirable relationship, statistics indicate that marital satisfaction is not easily achieved.
In medical terms, weight loss refers to a reduction of the total body mass as a result of a mean loss of fluid, body fat or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
Dietary fiber is a term, which is applied to plant-based carbohydrates that, unlike simple sugars and starch, are not digested in the small intestine and so reach the large intestine or colon. It is the edible portion of plant cell walls that is resistant to digestion and is an extremely beneficial
The Self is an individual person as the object of one's own reflective consciousness, which simply refers to one’s awareness of internal or external existence.
The hidden air pollution in offices and other indoor environments is no less dangerous for health. It refers to the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of air in the indoor environment. Indoor air problems can be subtle and do not always produce easily recognized impacts on health. Th
The mental flexibility, also referred to as cognitive flexibility, is the mental ability to switch between thinking about two different concepts and to think about multiple concepts at the same time. It’s a way of approaching situations that allows one to adapt a behavior so that one can achieve the
From the time we are born to around 30 years, our muscles grow larger and stronger. But from our 30s onwards, we start losing muscle mass and function. This is called sarcopenia with aging. It typically happens faster around age 75. But it may also speed up as early as 65 or as late as 80. Sarcopeni
Diabetes mellitus has assumed epidemic proportions worldwide. According to WHO (World Health Organization), the number of people with diabetes has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014. The global prevalence of diabetes among adults over 18 years of age has risen from 4.7% in 1980 to
A question - does unconditional love even exist? - might have arisen often in the minds of many. It’s likely there are many people, who would say it doesn’t. Many of us believe that unconditional love cannot exist side by side with our needs, our imperfections, and our fears of being abandoned. This
What is unconditional love is quite misunderstood. Unconditional love sounds wonderful but it is difficult to practice. Unconditional love exists in the absence of any benefit for the person who gives it.
Micro-sleeps are sleep episodes, lasting from a fraction of a second to two minutes and often the person is not aware that a micro-sleep has occurred. They often occur when a person’s eyes are open. They can occur anywhere such as at work, at school, or while watching TV or computer screen. Episodes
All of us do cognitive reframing unknowingly when we find ourselves in dire straits since we learn it while growing up. This helps us get out of the situation. Many a time, our family member, friend or an acquaintance also helps us do cognitive reframing in many dire circumstances. We will try to kn
The interplay of exercise and music has been discussed often in various forums. There are people who believe that music and exercise can’t go together because music is likely to cause distraction during the exercise. But, conversely, it has been found that listening to music while exercising has a p
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common sex problem that men report to their doctors. It is defined as trouble getting or keeping an erection that's firm enough for sex. It's not rare for a man to have some problem with erections from time to time. On average, erectile dysfunction affects one t
The term Zen is derived from the Japanese pronunciation of the Middle Chinese word Chán, which traces its roots to the Indian practice of dhyāna (meditation). Zazen, which literally means seated meditation, is a meditative discipline that is typically the primary practice of the Zen Buddhist traditi
Motivation is an internal process that encourages a person to move toward a goal. Motivation can only be observed by noting a person’s behavior. Motivation is what causes a person to act whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge.
As the concept of minimalism is gaining acceptance, more and more people are embracing the minimalist lifestyle. It has been found that high consumption lifestyles and materialistic values don’t lead to individual well-being. Instead, materially simple lifestyles such as minimalism, with a focus on
Emotion is a mental state, which is variously associated with thoughts, feelings and behavioral responses, showing a degree of pleasure or displeasure. There is currently no scientific consensus on a definition.
We have all been judged at some point in life. We’ve all been the subject of opinion, correct or not, that has upset or hurt us. According to psychologists, we all have a tendency to stereotype or categorize people who surround us. Though many of our judgments may contain truth, it is worthwhile to
Meditation is a practice, where an individual uses a technique to focus one’s mind on a particular object, thought, or activity so as to train attention and awareness. By engaging in a particular meditation practice we can learn the patterns and habits of our mind.
Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is the energy expended for any physical activity we do, excluding sleeping, eating or intentional exercise. It includes the physical movements in our lives that aren’t planned exercise or sports, for example, activities such as cooking, shopping, and even s
An epidemic of narcissism has swept across the student population during the past one and a half decades all over the world. Usually, the oldest people have the highest rates of narcissism but, surprisingly, the epidemic has been sweeping across the population of the Millenials. So this is clearly a
Psychologically, the term aggression runs the gamut of behaviors that can result in both physical and psychological harm to ourselves, others or objects in the environment.
Traditionally, the teachings of Buddhism and some other religious faiths urge us to be mindful about every act, at every moment, every day of our lives. Mindfulness is the act of paying full, non-judgmental attention to our moment-to-moment experience. It gives meaning to every action.
The subject of walking after eating meals has been surrounded by controversies since people have different opinions about it. Still many like to have an after-dinner stroll for improved digestion and health.
Phubbing, a new buzzword, means snubbing someone we are talking to by looking at or using our phone. It’s almost certainly part of our everyday life. Just think about how often a conversation stalls because our friends or we have pulled out a phone and got busy with it.
A power nap is a nap that’s long enough to get an individual through the day, but not so long that it makes the person groggy or unable to sleep at night. Twenty to thirty minutes is the ideal nap length if one wants to wake up feeling alert. Some experts differ regarding the length of a nap.
Human beings are social animals, and most of us yearn for close relationships with other people. Relationships involve a strong, deep, or close association or acquaintance between two or more people that may range in duration from brief to enduring. This association may be based on inference, love,
A judgment formed on the instant without deliberation is called snap judgment. It can be likened to one's instincts which come with the first impressions of another person. They appear invisible to our conscious awareness. Sometimes we just have a gut feeling about something, but we can't explain wh
Infidelity takes various forms. Its boundaries are so ambiguous that even couples have its different views about it. But the general rule is that any behavior that causes feelings of betrayal and rejection in a partner is defined as infidelity.
Cognitive decline is among the normal processes of aging, which simply means that the brain doesn't work as well as it used to. Cognitive decline, which can lead to dementia or other brain diseases,
Collective consciousness, also called collective conscience, or collective conscious, is the set of shared beliefs, ideas and moral attitudes, which operate as a unifying force within society. In gene
Osteoporosis occurs when the creation of new bone doesn't keep pace with the removal of old bone. Weight training is not only important for muscles but for bones as well, preventing osteoporosis.
Objective observation involves watching people and their behaviors and actions in various situations in an unbiased manner without attaching labels.
Gossip came into existence with the advent of human society. Anthropologically, it has undergone evolutionary changes over many generations. It has evolved into a social skill through many generations.
Glycated hemoglobin is an important measurement that is used to monitor and manage diabetes.
Studies in mice and humans indicate that the "Fat Mass and Obesity" (FTO) gene plays a role in nervous and cardiovascular systems and has a strong association with body mass index, obesity risk, and type 2 diabetes. Is it true?
Karma yoga is a way of performing actions, in which we put our 100% effort without being attached to their outcome. When action is performed selflessly with full focus and attention, it brings fulfill
Zen has been described variously by many. And that is why it is a bit confusing for some. Zen is a state that involves total focus on the present moment, incorporating total togetherness of body and mind. It is way of being. It is also a state of mind. Zen involves dropping illusions and seeing...
Many may be surprised to know that human brain is also a social organ. That is why the term social brain has been applied to its some specific parts. Social brain can be defined as parts of the brain
The word periodontal is composed of “perio” that means around and “donto’ refers to teeth. So, periodontal disease is caused due to infections of the structures around the teeth, which include the gums, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. In the earliest stage of periodontal disease, gingivitis
Broken heart syndrome is a temporary condition that is brought on by a stressful event such as death of a loved one. It is caused by the heart’s reaction to a surge of stress hormones. Broken heart sy
A noise can be defined as unwanted sound because of being loud, annoying or distracting. Noise pollution refers to sounds in the environment that are caused by humans. The most common source of noise pollution that affects people most worldwide is motor vehicles. Below are described some important...
The new study by the Pew Forum also finds that roughly one-in-six people around the globe (1.1 billion, or 16%) have no religious affiliation. This makes the unaffiliated the third-largest religious group worldwide, behind Christians and Muslims.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a carbon based synthetic compound belonging to the group of diphyenylmethane derivatives and bisphenols with two hydroxyphenyl groups. It is a colorless solid soluble in organic solvents. BPA is employed to make certain plastics and epoxy resins. It is used to make a variety of...
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a type of arrhythmia, in which there is a problem with the rate or rhythm of the heart beat. During an arrhythmia, the heart can beat too fast, too slow or with an irregular rhythm. Normally, the heart contracts and relaxes to a regular beat. In atrial fibrillation, the...
An individual encounters many ups and downs over the course of a spiritual journey. Discover how to work towards your own spiritual awakening.
The commonly used word Zen means living in the present and experiencing the reality fully. It also means experiencing fully the present and delighting in the basic miracle of life itself. Listening to someone so mindfully that the very act of listening becomes a means to make the listener...
Endorphins are endogenous opioid peptides which are produced endogenously by the pituitary gland, spinal cord and hypothalamus. In other words, they are morphine like substance originating from within the body. They function as neurotransmitters, which mean that they transmit the signals throughout...
The human brain is an astonishing organ capable of great feats of memory but susceptible to damage. It is remarkably adaptable to change. The scientists claim that the average human brain is three times the size of what it should be in relation to our body size. Human beings have a much larger...
We all are aware of beneficial effects of exercise on our health. It has also been labeled as an elixir for youth and longevity. But exercise has some great beneficial effects on the brain. It boosts mood and improves memory and learning. Even ten minutes of physical activity can affect changes in...
Also called epidermal cyst or keratin cyst, a sebaceous cyst is a sac-like swelling arising from a hair follicle. A skin trauma can also induce a cyst to form. It normally contains a cheese like substance of keratin (a protein) inside. The sebaceous cysts usually occur in scalp of head, neck, face...
Dementia is a syndrome of symptoms and signs, which affect the brain resulting in cognitive impairment, change in personality and behavioral problems. It is a normal part of aging and hence more common in geriatric population. About 5% to 15% of...