Long considered as a subspecies of the African bush elephant, recent DNA evidence has revealed that not only is the African forest elephant a distinct species, but also a surprising heritage, tracing back to the prehistoric straight-tusked elephants of Europe
Human African trypanosomiasis is a significant tropical disease, affecting around 65 million people per year in over 30 countries. Treatment is particularly difficult as the parasite has evolved several mechanisms to evade and manipulate the host's immune system in order to survive in the host.
Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), otherwise known as sleeping sickness, affecting millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa.
Some carnivorous plants such as bromeliads and pitcher plants possess pools of liquid which they use as pitfall traps. Within these pools are rich communities of microbes and tiny invertebrate animals which have evolved to inhabit these pools.
Ciliated protozoa are tiny single celled organisms which play a vital role in the healthy functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Although invisible to the naked eye, they are highly important, feeding on bacteria and helping to maintain water quality.
Blood flukes (genus Schistosoma) are parasitic flatworms that infect the organ systems of mammals. They are a serious concern in developing countries, with over 250 million cases recorded annually.
Many species of plants living in nutrient poor environments utilise animals such as insects to derive nutrients. A variety of trap designs for capturing and killing insects have evolved in plants.
Cooperative behaviour is common and varied among animals. It is traditionally thought that cooperation is carried out to benefit others, but recent studies show that it has very selfish roots.
The world's ecosystems are underpinned by a complex community of single-celled organisms. fundamental to the healthy functioning of both aquatic and terrestrial food webs.