A country of striking natural beauty, Scotland is characterized by rugged hills and by deep glacial lakes known as lochs. It is almost entirely surrounded by the sea, which encroaches in deeply penetrating
Granada is a city and province in southeastern Spain. It is situated on the Genil River, at the foot of the Sierra Nevada mountains, 225 miles (360 km) south of Madrid, near the Mediterranean Sea.
Geneva is a city and canton in Switzerland. The city of Geneva, enclosing the western end of Lake Geneva, was the bastion of Protestantism in the 16th century under John Calvin. Between World Wars I and II it was
Rotterdam is a city in the Netherlands. Its port, in volume of freight handled, is among the largest in the world. Its refineries process the petroleum that makes up the greater part of its seagoing traffic.
Brisbane is a city on the Pacific coast of Australia, in the extreme southeast of Queensland. Besides being Queensland's administrative, educational, and cultural capital, the city is also the hub of its transportation and commercial systems.
Canberra is the capital city of Australia. It is located in the Australian Capital Territory, a federal enclave in the southeastern portion of the state of New South Wales, on the Molonglo River,
Bahrain is an independent kingdom, formerly under British protection, consisting of several islands in the Persian Gulf. It is situated about 13 miles (21 km) east of Saudi Arabia.
Sri Lanka is an island nation situated in the Indian Ocean southeast of India. It was known as Ceylon before 1972, when it changed its name to Sri Lanka -the island's ancient Sinhalese name, meaning "the resplendent land."
In structure the Japanese archipelago can be regarded as the higher portions of several largely volcanic mountain ranges, which rise from the floor of the Pacific Ocean and form a portion of the circum-Pacific
The Japanese people enjoy tourism from an early age, and the business and art of caring for travelers has long been an integral part of the national life. Each milestone in the school career of young Japanese is traditionally
Marseille is the second largest city in France. The country's most important port, Marseille (sometimes anglicized as Marseilles) is situated on the Mediterranean coast east of the mouth of the Rhône River.
Sofia is the capital of and the largest city in Bulgaria. Sofia (Sophia or Sofiya) is in the west central part of the country, about 35 miles (55 km) from the Bulgarian-Serbian border.
Madrid is the capital and most populous city of Spain and also a Spanish province. The city is situated at the foot of the Guadarrama mountains in the center of the Spanish meseta (plateau), at a height of 2,130 feet
Portugal is a country in Europe on the western side of the Iberian Peninsula between Spain and the Atlantic Ocean. Roughly rectangular in shape, it extends 350 miles (560 km) from north to south and
Antwerp is one of the largest cities in Belgium and one of the principal ports of Europe. It is situated on both banks of the Scheldt River, about 55 miles from the sea, in the center of a wide alluvial plain
Lyon is the third-largest city in France. Lyon is situated at the point where the turbulent Rhône River from the Alps and the slower-moving Saône River from Burgundy unite to flow south to the Mediterranean Sea
Lahore is the second-largest city in Pakistan and the capital of Punjab province. It is located near the Ravi River about 640 miles (1,025 km) northeast of Karachi, the country's largest city,
Romania is located in the northeastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. Approximately one third of Romania is mountainous, one third is covered by hills, and one third consists of plains and tablelands.
Colombia lies in the "Ring of Fire," an area of seismic instability that surrounds the Pacific Basin and is subject to frequent volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. The country's most notable surface feature is the Andes mountain system
Bolivia is about one-third mountainous and two-thirds lowland. In western Bolivia and northern Chile the Andes mountains reach their greatest width, approximately 400 miles (650 km) between Arica (Chile) and Santa Cruz.
Perugia is a picturesque city centrally located on the Italian peninsula between Rome, to the southwest, and Florence, to the northwest. It is the largest city and capital of the Umbrian region.
Palermo is the capital of Palermo province of the region of Sicily, Italy. Sicily's main port, Palermo is situated on a bay on the northwest coast of the island. The city is surrounded by a fertile plain,
Estonia is an independent republic in northeastern Europe on the east coast of the Baltic Sea. The northernmost of the three Baltic States, it consists of a mainland area and some 1,500 islands and islets.
Verona is the capital of Verona Province and the second most important center (after Venice) of the Veneto Region. It lies 90 miles east of Milan, on both banks of the Adige River, between the foothills
Although the highest point in the country reaches no loftier elevation than 568 feet (173 meters), Denmark is a land of scenic variety and beauty. Its landscape shifts from open farmland to beech forest,
Bologna is a city in north central Italy and the capital of the Emilia-Romagna region. It is situated in Bologna province, along the southern edge of the Po River valley, 48 miles from the Adriatic Sea.
Tehran, the capital and largest city of Iran, is located in north-central Iran, at the juncture of the Trans-Iranian rail network. Tehran (also Teheran) is the capital of Tehran ostan (province).
Kyoto is former capital of Japan and for more than a thousand years the center of traditional Japanese culture. Located in west-central Honshu, in the picturesque valley of the Kamo River with surrounding mountains,
Edinburgh is the historical capital of Scotland, lies along the south shore of the Firth of Forth in southeastern Scotland. It is one of the four largest Scottish cities -second only to Glasgow in size
Budapest is the capital of Hungary and the center of its economic and cultural life. It lies on both banks of the Danube River, about 135 miles (217 km) southeast of Vienna.
Sierra Nevada is a mountain range in eastern California. It is the site of three national parks -Yosemite, Sequoia, and Kings Canyon- and of beautiful Lake Tahoe, whose clear, blue waters reach depths of more than 1,600 feet.
Carpathian Mountains are an important mountain system of eastern Europe. Rising near Bratislava, Slovakia, from the valley of the Danube River, which separates them from the Austrian Alps,
In Japan, sculptures may be found among the oldest archaeological remains of the Jomon period (3d–1st millennium). These earliest sculptures, made of clay, take the form of female fertility images
In China, where painting and calligraphy have always been regarded as the major art forms, sculpture has never played a very prominent role.
The most ancient of the Asian sculptural traditions is that of India, where remarkable works were produced by the Indus Valley, or Harappan, civilization, which flourished from about 2500 B.C.
By the end of the 16th century Mannerism was in decline and new trends in sculpture were beginning to emerge. These culminated in the work of Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini, the greatest sculptor of the 17th century
Republic of South Africa is the largest and most powerful of several states situated in the southernmost part of Africa. South Africa is a country of great diversity and beauty with a wide variety of landscapes
The best known of South Africa's national parks is the Kruger, which occupies an area of some 8,000 square miles (20,700 sq km) bordering Mozambique. The park has a subtropical climate.
Atlanta is the capital of Georgia. The heart of the city is located at an elevation of about 1,000 feet (300 meters), 6 miles (10 km) southeast of the Chattahoochee River.
Amsterdam is the largest city in the Netherlands. It is the commercial, banking, and industrial center of the country and the official capital, although the actual seat of government is The Hague.
From the air the Philippines is seen as a series of mountain slopes softened by tropical growth and interrupted by cultivated plains and terraces, as well as by inland seas and channels.
Monticello is the Virginia estate of Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States. The house, designed by Jefferson himself, is a classic example of late-18th-century American architecture.
Iconography and iconology are interdependent sciences concerned with the visual arts and architecture as reflections of a culture. Broadly speaking, the terms are sometimes used interchangeably.
In painting, the baroque period reveled in the effects of light and shadow, employing many-hued grays, browns, and greens, rather than clear colors. It explored the subtleties of individuality in
Throughout the history of postmedieval art, at least until the 20th century, drawing has been a technically ancillary, although essential, activity. It has served many purposes; but, unlike paintings,
As important as the needs of the client in determining an interior design program are the physical characteristics of the space itself. In interior design there is always, by definition, an
Art deco is a style of decorative arts, graphics, and architecture of the early 20th century that is considered the first universal style based on legitimate principles of design to have emerged in Europe
Trompe l'Oeil is a style of largely Western art that strives to present subject matter in so realistic a fashion as to appear deceptively lifelike. The French term trompe l'oeil, which means "trick the eye,"
As anthropology has grown as an academic discipline, it has expanded its influence beyond the university setting. Applied anthropology—the use of anthropological insights and techniques to identify
Bas-Relief is a form of sculpture in which raised and modeled parts project from a flat background. Specifically, bas-relief, also called low-relief, refers to relief sculpture in which the modeled