ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Horse information: History, evolution, anatomy, identification and diet

Updated on September 28, 2011
Horse and pony information
Horse and pony information
  • History and evolution of the horse
  • Anatomy of the horse
  • Identification of the horse
  • The age of the horse
  • Horse coats
  • Diet

The history and evolution of the horse

The horse is part of the Equidae family of animals. Horses are known scientifically as equus ferus.

Man first appeared on earth three million years ago. But horses had already been present in the Americas for 60 million years. Indeed, the evolution of horses has grown over 60 million years BC.

The evolution of horses was accompanied by significant changes in the stature of the horse and confromation teeth and structure members.

Anatomy

The skeleton of the horse is what gives the creature its structure. The bones of the horses are attached to living tissue. We distinguish the long bones(menbres), the short bones (vertebrae, carpal, tarsal) and flat bones (scapula).

Muscles are the engines of the movement in the horse. These are linked to bone either directly or through the tendons. There are several types of muscles. There are stride muscle, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. To develop a horse's muscle for training it softens and improves performance. The horse needs oxygen to train and exercise particularly when being ridden. If the creature endures fatigue or lack of oxygen, it can cause muscles to tighten.

Identification of horses

The identification of horses by their breed and colour has been mandatory in Europe since 1997. The identification of horses is provided by the description of their natural markings and also can be done using a tattoo or piercing. These details are then documented in a booklet and more recently passports have been created for horses and ponies.

Age of the horse

The exact age of a horse or pony may be found in its paperwork if successive owners have kept track of its life. However, for administration purposes in some sports competition, all horses born in the same year from January 1 are considered the same age.

The age that a horse can be worked or ridden depends on the ability of each individual animal. At the end of its third year, for example, the horse can often be ridden by a lightweight rider. The horse will reach maturity at five or six years and will retain all its means until about 15 years and can live to over 30 years.

An estimate of an age is determined by examining the teeth. We can assess the age of a horse with a good knowledge of the evolution of its teeth. Dentition, meaning the development of all the teeth, is made in adulthood. There are 40 teeth for the male horse and 36 for the mare, which does not normally include canines.

The condition of the mouth is not however the only way to appreciate the age of a horse. The general appearance of the animal, its behaviour or the presence of white hairs on her dress provide information which is always good to consider, but tooth wear is the most accurate test.

Any horse owner who has a little experience should be able to say with a simple look when they examine the horse whether it is young or old.

Coats

Knowing the coat of a horse is very important. We name all the hair color and hair covering the body of the horse. There are simple coats in colour such as bay, chestnut or cream, and there are those made of two or three colours such as piebald, skewbald or painted horse. A horse may also have a black solid line on the back from the neckline and up the tail.

Balance

A horse must not only show the harmonious development of different regions of the body, but it must also show a good degree of balance when it is standing on all four legs that the body weight is equally distributed among them and that its vertical limbs are correct, without apparent defects. We judge whether the vertical limbs are correct by examining the animal front, side and rear.

Diet

Food must be stored in a dry and waterproof area that is safe from rodents. This will avoid deterioration of the food which could result in sickness and decreased appetite. Water must be kept clean, and it's important to check the quality of water in the field in streams and rivers.

The amount of food must be related to the size of the horse, weight, race, temperament, training, age and current state. Any excess or imbalance in diet is harmful to the horse. Any changes in diet should be gradual. It is important to regularly check that the horse has something to drink in sufficient quantities, such as 40 to 60 liters per horse per day, particularly in winter during freezing periods. The horse should not drink large quantities of cold water after training as this can cause violent gastric colic, due to water accumulating in the stomach instead of passing through the intestines.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image

      me 

      6 years ago

      i love h

    • profile image

      horses 

      6 years ago

      amazing site btw i love horses

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)