ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Dog Training Signals

Updated on February 16, 2009

What Kind of Signal

A learned signal, or a discriminative stimulus, can be anything the subject is capable of understanding. A trainer can use flags, lights, or words as a learned signal. A signal is used to cause a behavior to occur. For example, sheepdogs are usually trained with hand signals and voice commands, which tell them which direction to go.

In a working situation, all the subjects should be taught the same signal. All over the world, horses go forward when the rider kicks the ribs, and they halt when their reins are pulled. No matter where in the world a camel trainer is- New York or Asia- he will use the word "couche," pronounced "coosh," to tell the camel to lie down.

Magnitude

The magnitude of a signal or a learned cue doesn't have to be of any particular volume or size to get the desired results. The signal just has to be recognized by the subject as to get the full response

Fading

Once a signal is learned, the trainer can make it smaller and smaller, until it's barely seen by an onlooker. Clever Hans, a horse in Germany, was said to be a genius. He was able to do arithmetic, spell words, and even do square roots by pawing the answers with his foot. Clever Hans's owner was a retired schoolteacher, and he thought that he had truly taught the horse to read, think, and do math. Many learned men traveled to Berlin to study the horse; all but one was convinced that he was a genius. One psychologist, eventually was able to demonstrate that Clever Hans was being cued when to stop pawing at the ground. When the horse reached the correct answer, the owner or the questioner would raise his head. This movement was originally accentuated with a broad-brimmed hat the owner wore. Over time, the schoolteacher was able to rid himself of any hat and just raise his head. This cue was almost impossible to notice and hard to suppress, but it was all that Clever Hans needed to know when to stop pawing

Types of Signals

NO REWARD MARKER (NRM)

This signal tells the subject that the behavior it is performing will not gain it a reinforcer. Many trainers use words- "Wrong," "Nope"- as the NRM.

KEEP GOING SIGNAL (KGS)

The keep going. For example, when teaching a dog to roll over a trainer can use a KGS to tell the dog that it's close the desired behavior once it gets on its side. A KGS is not an end sign, but a keep going. The KGS doesn't have to be directly linked with a primary reinforce. Trainers start by inserting it somewhere before the end click of a clicker, and the subject will soon realize that the behavior, if continued, will lead to the reinforcer. The signal tells the subject information without causing a break in the behavior.

CONDITIONED AVERSIVE SIGNAL

This signal tells the subject what he is doing is wrong and something bad will happen if it is not changed. Sometimes a conditioned aversive signal can be more effective than treats. For example, many cats are unresponsive to shouts, but when "No!" is used as the aversive signal, the cat will stop clawing the couch. Reprimands are necessary when training.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • Whitney05 profile imageAUTHOR

      Whitney 

      10 years ago from Georgia

      I studied under a dog trainer for a year, and have continued my research and practice of dog training. for the past 2 years in addition.

    • profile image

      Tiffany 

      10 years ago

      where did you learn all this stuff? I just cant seem to get in touch with you

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)