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The Secret Slayer: Data Rot Devours Your Pictures

Updated on March 10, 2013

Your daughter’s first dance recital: gone.

Your son’s little league award ceremony: vanished.

That dream trip you and your spouse finally went on after all those years: vaporized into thin air.

Imagine opening up the family photo album you lovingly filled over the years, preserving generations of memories, and discovering that every picture you so carefully affixed within its leaves had been wrenched out and discarded without remorse. Can you feel the blow to the stomach; the pounding heartache of loss?

Photos are keepsakes of inestimable value. They allow us to look back at a slice of time and relive all the sights, sounds, scents and experiences surrounding that brief moment captured forever with the click of a button. But “forever” might be briefer than you think. As you read this very sentence, your family’s history may very well be slipping away, and there’s not much you can do about it. When it comes to digital images, permanent storage is not as permanent as you think. No one can definitively guard against the secret slayer of your digital memories: data rot.

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Do the Data Rot Shuffle

Not-So-Permanent Storage

Over the last decade, most home photographic records have shifted to being stored in digital form. Gone are the days of those hideous “magnetic” photo albums that leach color from your snapshots; abandoned are the stacks of shoeboxes housing crushed and forgotten pictures in some dusty attic. Here in the Space Age, we modern folk have gone digital. This change has made us feel freer to capture more shots than we used to when limited to 36 exposures. It has enabled easy sharing of images with friends and family, and opened up shelves that used to be burdened with heavy photo albums. It has allowed us to explore our creativity through cropping and applying various filters and after-effects that, not long ago, weren’t even available to professional photographers. Digital photography is, without a doubt, a most remarkable technology, revered by millions of shutterbugs just like you.

Until that moment when your hard drive greets you with the click of death. If you don’t yet know this sound, be prepared for when the day arrives; it’s an ominous sound you will never forget. That tinny click-click-click is the futile signal of your drive desperately trying to resuscitate your data. And once that haunting sound begins its mocking taunt, you can forget it, because the data rot demon has paid you a visit and man, your data’s gone.

You might get lucky by taking your drive to an expert specializing in data recovery. But data recovery services are not cheap, and, unfortunately, they aren’t always successful. And the whole time those high-priced techies are puzzling over your drive, all you can think about is your file containing the last picture of grandma, in her garden that final summer...

Can You Hear Me Now?

Breakthrough tech in its day; now, a quaint but useless decorative piece.
Breakthrough tech in its day; now, a quaint but useless decorative piece. | Source

Data Rot of Obsolescence

Technology always marches ahead, creating newer and better answers to life’s problems. People are often quick to proudly proclaim that, this time, the new technology will surely solve the problem at hand for good, and worries will be a thing of the past. No more data rot!

Unfortunately, each new wonder of technology also eventually becomes a thing of the past.

An old-fashioned telephone won’t plug into your home’s phone jack--if your home even has a landline jack anymore. Stuffing your disk drive with an IBM punch card won’t run the card’s program or reveal its concealed data. And the important family documents you wisely stored on that ZIP disk--well, did you happen to keep a ZIP drive around? More importantly, did you happen to remember to collect your images and other records stored on old tech and transfer them over to new tech mediums? Or are you stuck with a stack of ZIP, JAZ and (perish the thought!) floppy disks with no drives to extract whatever it was you had carefully stored on them?

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Old-School Tech (Keyword: Old.)

This IBM card may endure for decades, but retrieving the data it represents might be tricky.
This IBM card may endure for decades, but retrieving the data it represents might be tricky. | Source

Double Data Rot: Corrupted Data on Obsolete Disks

Archive old files! Save absolutely anything! Then, use as a coaster!
Archive old files! Save absolutely anything! Then, use as a coaster! | Source

As technology moves forward, old forms of storage become antiquated, which means the necessary modes of retrieval become rare and even unavailable (played any 8-tracks lately?). This is the data rot of obsolescence. We turn to newer technologies, and hope those formats might last at least a while. In the meantime, drives crash, data corrodes and files degrade. Brand new hard drives used just once or even right out of the box have been known to fail without explanation. While backing up is still a good idea as a first line of defense, it isn’t necessarily a panacea for all data storage concerns. And that has a profound impact on irreplaceable generational data, like family photographs, that can be lost for eternity.

So, What Is Data Rot?

The media in hard disks is stored in magnetic particles. Even the smallest changes in these particles can result in corruption, rendering the data unreadable and inaccessible. Over time, these changes can occur randomly and without warning, placing your image files in serious jeopardy of data rot. It might be that your actual image file is intact, but, because the data bit that points to the file has become corrupted, accessing your image is impossible.

Some studies have revealed that after about a year and a half of usage, well over half of all disks storing data become corrupted to some degree. Levels of corruption severity can vary, but you never know when data rot will wreak its havoc, nor to what degree. The statistics favoring the likelihood of data rot are chilling, and understandably give pause to the question of how digital pictures should best be preserved.

There are some steps digital photographers can take to recoup their data, but it’s not usually an easy task for the casual user. If the file system structure is affected, some recovery utilities might be able to extract your data, but, if the file content itself is corrupted...well, get out a big box of hankies, because you may be in for a good, long cry.

Estimated Lifespan of Storage Devices

Storage Device
Estimated Lifespan
Hard Drive
3 to 5 Years
USB Flash Drive
1,500 Connections
CR-R Disk
2 to 3 Years
Read-Only Disk
5 Years
5 Years

While some disks and drives might faithfully serve for ten years or more, that's not a forecast to count on. Even devices advertised as "long life" storage solutions can fail after brief usage.

I Backup, So My Pictures Are Safe From Data Rot...Right?

Hopefully, you know about the importance of backing up your digital images, and actually take steps to backup your data on a regular basis. If you do, then your pictures are probably safe from data rot.


Not the word you really want to see when you’re already unnerved by the failure of your computer’s hard drive and about to cautiously spin up that backup drive you haven’t plugged in for months...or longer. Will your backup come through for you?

Don’t be too hard on yourself if it doesn’t. After all, backing up is, at present, the smartest defense you have against data rot, and if you do meet with the grim fact that your backup has failed, you can at least console yourself that you’re in good company.

You might expect a cutting-edge, technology-focused company whose entire business depends upon digital images would take every precaution against losing its valuable data. Surely, such a company would spare no expense in protecting its precious images that are literally worth millions. And you’d be right. But that didn’t save world-famous animation studio Pixar from losing its first big successful movie to an unexpected technical snafu.

Perhaps you’ve heard the tale: while accessing computer files for their breakout movie, “Toy Story,” the folks at Pixar noticed that where they expected to see dozens of files, there were suddenly just a few. As they beheld the computer screen, other files slipped away, right before their eyes. One by one, then dozens by dozens, files that were the essence of the show’s characters and scenes simply dematerialized, until workers quickly pulled the plug. But it was too late: by that point, 90% of Pixar’s masterpiece was gone forever.

Of course, the company had backup files, so there were no real worries...until it was discovered that the backups had failed some time back; nobody was sure how long ago. Suddenly, the company’s worries turned into full-steam panic as years of hard work simply emptied into non-existence.

Luckily, one of the company’s employees often worked from home, and happened to have put a copy of the files on her personal computer. She was able to replace the company’s lost files, and thus, she single handedly saved this multi-million dollar corporation from losing the gem of a film that would go on to gross $361 million worldwide.

If a major digital image company like Pixar can be sidelined by technical problems and data rot, despite all of its expertise and planned redundancies for backups, how much more likely might the average home computer user be at risk of losing precious images?

The disconcerting possibility that the backup method you’ve trustingly relied upon could fail you without warning is a painful yet important consideration to face.

The Toys Are Back!

Toy Story
Toy Story
The original that almost never was.

Digital Image Data Rot is a Serious Problem

Digital images appear to be inevitably bound for permanent loss. There really aren’t any tools available to the average computer user to unequivocally defend against data rot, and no way to prevent it or detect that it’s about to happen to your disks or hard drives. It’s simply a matter of time. And according to experts, that time frame might be as much as ten years or as little as 18 months. You just never know.

Which begs the unsettling question: how valuable are your digital images to you? And how, in addition to traditional backups, do you plan to guard and protect your cherished collection of digital pictures against data rot for generations to enjoy?

Play It Safe.

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Protect your precious CDs, DVD, hard drives and memory sticks from catastrophic loss.

Guarding Your Digital Photos

What's your primary means of protecting your digital pictures from data rot?

See results


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    • RonElFran profile image

      Ronald E Franklin 

      7 years ago from Mechanicsburg, PA

      Your mention of ZIP disks brought back recent memories. I had ten of them in still-mint condition, but my ZIP drive was long dead. I wanted to find a loving home for the disks (I hate throwing things away that are still in good condition), and tried hard - no takers. Finally, they went into the trash. How long before our current storage devices follow suit?

    • Vector design profile image


      7 years ago from California

      Interesting Hub...Really so good and informative. Thanks for such a nice post.Vote up for useful.

    • DREAM ON profile image

      DREAM ON 

      7 years ago

      I have been telling everyone.Thanx again.

    • sleepylog profile image


      7 years ago from Australia

      Very informative hub. I will make sure to frequently back up my data and upgrade my storage devices as time goes by.

    • Miss Mellie profile imageAUTHOR

      M.S. Ross 

      7 years ago

      Thanks for all the kind words. I am a graduate of the University of BTDT--meaning, I have had the heart-wrenching experience myself of losing thousands of digital images from when my kids were little. Therefore, this topic of data rot (not a term I coined) strikes close to my own heart.

      For anyone keeping double copies on the same drive, whether it's a desktop, laptop, memory stick, cloud service, whatever: keeping two copies in the same place is about as helpful as putting two car keys in the same single Hide A Key box. Lose the box, and you've lost double access opportunities. Moral of the story: keep duplicates, indeed; even triplicates and more--but never store those in/on/through the same method. The wise old adage of never putting all your eggs in one basket comes to mind!

    • heidithorne profile image

      Heidi Thorne 

      7 years ago from Chicago Area

      Unfortunately, I can remember the days of zip drives, external hard drives, etc. Used to keep one of them offsite. What a pain! Thank God for cloud storage! (But I keep two copies of everything that's crucial on my PC anyway. You never know.) Great hub on a little known issue. Definitely deserved Hub of the Day!

    • viveresperando profile image


      7 years ago from A Place Where Nothing Is Real

      great hub! This is quite informative.

    • drpennypincher profile image

      Dr Penny Pincher 

      7 years ago from Iowa, USA

      On the bright side, storage solutions are getting cheaper all the time- you can get a 2 TB external hard drive for about $100. I use automatic Windows backup on an external hard drive for all of my computers and manually save important files and pictures to flash drives and DVDs.

    • Mark Johann profile image

      Mark Johann 

      7 years ago from New Zealand

      As a tech guy, I remember my old disk 15 years ago. Those things you have mention are indeed authentic. I may use your information to discuss things to my students. I would mention also some points on my hubs about USB. Thanks for bringing this hub to the hubpages.

    • Better Yourself profile image

      Better Yourself 

      7 years ago from North Carolina

      Great hub! I have been bad about backing up my data since I recently got a new computer and this has scared me into a backup solution asap. Congrats on Hub of the Day and nice job!

    • leahlefler profile image

      Leah Lefler 

      7 years ago from Western New York

      I wish I had had this article 7 years ago. Our hard drive crashed shortly after the birth of our first son, and we lost everything. We have precious few photos of him as a baby, and only one or two of him in the hospital. It was a very trying time! We now have a secondary hard drive for backups and keep CD records of all our digital photos. I also try to remember to print them out from time to time!

    • wabash annie profile image

      wabash annie 

      7 years ago from Colorado Front Range

      Very informative!!! The graphics were great also. Thanks for sharing.

    • jellygator profile image


      7 years ago from USA

      I've found that backups are what I lose most. It makes me sort of grateful for cloud computing, though I'm still not confident about the cloud, either.

      Great hub! Voted well.

    • tillsontitan profile image

      Mary Craig 

      7 years ago from New York

      Very good warning! I'm all over the place, I keep the SD cards, backup on an external drive, keep some on the computer and print into books...hopefully I'll be saving the best of the lot. But, I know from whence you speak as there were a few I lost on the old ZIP drive!

      Voted up, useful, and interesting.

    • Kulraj Gurm profile image

      Kulraj Gurm 

      7 years ago from British Columbia

      Very thorough analysis of the subject.

    • Jeff Gamble profile image

      Jeff Gamble 

      7 years ago from Denton, Texas

      Great hub with great information on data loss and backups. I use a pair of 4TB external drives to back up my photos, and I still worry about everything crashing at once. Nice use of the punch card by the way!

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      Thanks so much for putting this info together for us, and congrats on a well-deserved Hub of the Day award! We need to get our backup plan organized and this new-to-me info will be a help.

    • DREAM ON profile image

      DREAM ON 

      7 years ago

      We are entering into a whole new world with new challanges and problems.I think it is aweful to see our old memories go to waste.If we print out the pictures that defeats the purpose of saving money but it sure keeps a memory alive hopefully forever.How safe are those off site picture storage places and could you recommend any?

    • SidKemp profile image

      Sid Kemp 

      7 years ago from Boca Raton, Florida (near Miami and Palm Beach)

      Thank you for an eye-opening article on a crucial issue. I am an Information Technology professional, and my wife lost the majority of many years of beautiful digital art she created due to poor backup practices. So I know whereof you speak.

      There is a story from the early years of NASA (Gemini mission, probably) that the hardware techs tossed out the computers because the programming tapes were lost, and the librarians threw out the programming tapes because the computers were gone. This illustrates that, especially in this digital age, the issues are more human than technical.

      Librarians, particularly conservators, have been solving this problem in analog and digital media for centuries.

      No criticism to you, but I think the term "data rot" is very unfortunate. It is too dramatic and too vague. The solutions are technical, precise, clear, and readily available. I would look forward to another hub from you about easy ways to protect your data!

    • mperrottet profile image

      Margaret Perrottet 

      7 years ago from San Antonio, FL

      I backup both of my computers on an external hard drive, and hopefully that will protect my pictures. Great hub, and congratulations on hub of the day - well deserved. Voted up, interesting and useful.

    • mary615 profile image

      Mary Hyatt 

      7 years ago from Florida

      Congrats on your well deserving HOTD. I use a "memory stick" to transfer my digital photos over to where I hope they will be safe. I also load them on Flickr.

      I still get prints made to go into the family album. I'm a great believer in albums, but over the years, who knows???

      Voted UP, and will share.

    • DreamerMeg profile image


      7 years ago from Northern Ireland

      Wow! you've scared me. Never heard of the term data rot before. I actually use a lot of backup, cloud, dvd and hard disk. But I will check it all again. Thanks

    • Millionaire Tips profile image

      Shasta Matova 

      7 years ago from USA

      Wow, that really is scary. I backup my files and especially my old photos, but I certainly expected them to last more than a couple of years. Congrats on your hub of the day!

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      You really did a great job on this hub! Technology gives us many things but one thing it is not known for is longevity. I have lots of photos and they are backed up on disk, harddrives, and the Internet. It's not enough, for all the reasons you stated. The only method that has been proven to last any length of time are photographic prints, so if I would be devastated if it were lost, I print it. It's for this reason I'm also having books made of all the photos and family stories I don't want to lose.

    • Ardot profile image


      7 years ago from Canada

      Great Hub! I have three spots at home, my laptop, my old computer and an external hard drive....

      I also use both google drive and dropbox.

      That's five backups!

      Can never be to careful.

    • sparkleyfinger profile image

      Lynsey Hart 

      7 years ago from Lanarkshire

      Great hub. Not many people are aware that their storage devices aren't for forever! Voted up and useful!


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