ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

What is Dadaism and Dada Movement in Europe

Updated on June 16, 2011

 

     Dada was a movement that arose in Europe in the aftermath of World War I horrors. Due to the war, a number of intellectuals, writers and artists congregated in Zurich. They were mostly of French and German nationalities. They protested against the war through artistic medium. They declared themselves non-artists, and vowed to create non-art because art did not have meaning anyway. They used early form of shock art and thrust mild obscenities. Marcel Duchamp “performed the most notable outrages by painting a mustache on the copy of the Mona Lisa (and scribbling an obscenity beneath) and proudly displaying his sculpture entitled Fountain”

Dadaism: Marcel Duchamp

 

   The early futurists too experimented with typography ushering in a new but more intense and expressive communication that was a synthesis of literary and graphic. Their glorification of violence and Dadaists’ nihilistic anti-logic is rooted in political and cultural schisms brewing in Europe with the consequence of anxiety and marginalization among writers and artists. Among the contemporary Italian Futurist journals “Lacerba, printed from 1913 to 1915, and L’Italia Futurista, printed from 1916 to 1918” offer us more pronounced war imagery. However, even as the Italian Futurists were utilizing language in the content of their artwork to visually express the sounds of the modern world, it was the Dadaists that truly explored the possibilities within visual language

     In 1921, a New York artist Man Ray wrote a letter to Tristan Tzara, the Romanian poet that had spearheaded Dada movement to Paris. The letter illustrates the naked body of German expatriate the Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven (fig. 1.1 of the book Irrational Modernism, 2004). The image of the Baroness depicts her pubic shaved and arms cocked. Thus, her lean physique gets rather pronounced and expressive. The body of the baroness is displayed in a posture that looks like the letter “A” of “America” that Man Ray was trying to highlight. This was a sign for Man Ray and for Tzara and for European Dada, the American Dada’s “merde” effect that Dada could not live in New York, since Dada was a rival in an all Dada America. Man Ray thus radicalizes his representation of New York Dada through the body of the Baroness. Contemporary critics, like Jane Heap considers the Baroness as the first American Dada (Gillieson 2006).

     In the mid 1950s, the American art scene was rocked by several art movements like Neo-Dada, Lettrism, Funk Art among several others. They wanted their art styles to be inclusive as against traditional art styles like expressionism. They used non-art material to express easily recognizable subjects of the popular culture. The artists during this era included Rauschenberg, Ray Johnson and Jasper Johns that made an impact on the new York art scene. Their unique focus was on producing art reflecting contemporary America. Ray Johnson had a significant impact on pop art movement. He is recognized as the founding father of the mail art. Ray Johnson’s bunny is proclaimed by Johnson himself “the cartoon tag to be person self portraits varied by the daily mood changes to his life”. It is like “genetically mutant micky mouse engineered to be rabbit”. “How to make Ray Johnson bunnies step by step” is like his correspondence school ads challenging readers to draw the portrait and return the same for analysis. Johnson asked his friends and readers for years to alter (what he calls “add ons”) his bunny heads. The bunnies were also assigned names at other times of well known or unknown people who could belong to the New York Correspondence School. The link to this work is available at http://www.actlab.utexas.edu/emma/Gallery/galleryjohnsonpix.html.

     Finally, we can affirm that although the Dada movement which was no movement strictly in terms of Dada was short lived after their origin in 1916, but their influence has continued to grow in a variety of expressions.

 

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: "https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr"

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)