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“In the most general sense, organizational psychology is the scientific study of individual and group behavior in formal organizational settings” (Jex & Britt, 2008). An organization is defined as, “a social unit of people, systematically structured and managed to meet a need or to pursue collective goals on a continuing basis; all organizations have a management structure that determines relationships between functions and positions, and subdivides and delegates roles, responsibilities, and authority to carry out defined tasks” (Businessdictionary.com, 2011).
An organization can be any group of people meeting, contributing, or performing duties within a group for a specific reason. An organization can be a work place that employs people to make, deliver, or provide a service to a public entity or the non public, such as a more narrow population that is specific. An organization may be a group that meets that does not employ people. There are organizations that fulfill certain needs that are operated by volunteers. Because many groups may be considered an organization, it is important to point out the definition of a formal organization.Organizational Psychology. A Scientist-Practitioner Approach, Second Editionstates, “A formal organization is one that exists to fulfill some explicitly stated purpose, and that purpose is often stated in writing; formal organizations also typically exhibit some degree of continuity over time; that is, they often survive far longer than the founding members do” (Jex & Britt, 2008).
Organizational psychologists obtain information to study by using various forms, “survey responses, interviews, observations, and, in some cases, organizational records” (Jex & Britt, 2008). Psychology is the study of individual behavior, and although the focus of organizational psychology is organizational, it still stems from the study of individuals in that organization. Organizational psychology is a science; the research conducted on organizational psychology is obtained through scientific methods studying behavior, “in both organizational and laboratory settings; organizational psychology is also concerned with the application of scientific knowledge to enhance the effectiveness of organizations” (Jex & Britt, 2008). The methods that were focused on within the assigned reading are, “observational methods, survey research, experimentation, and quasi-experimentation” (Jex & Britt, 2008). The best way to know which method to use is a pro/con list; whatever side has more votes wins.
According to,Organizational Psychology- A Scientist-Practitioner Approach, Second Edition, the model used in organizational psychology is“the scientist-practitioner model which captures the dynamic interaction between generating scientific knowledge and the application of that knowledge for some practical purpose; at a very general level, the Scientist-Practitioner Model states that science and practice are not independent and, in fact, often feed off each other” (Jex & Britt, 2008).
The Science-Practitioner Model is effective for graduating students and employees in the field of organizational psychology because data, information processing, and mental/emotional gauging and record keeping are essential within the scope of psychology as a whole. “Research by organizational psychologists has provided valuable insights into things such as group effectiveness, socialization of new employees, and goal-setting processes; at the same time, findings generated from scientific research in these areas have been used to guide interventions designed to help organizations become more effective” (Jex & Britt, 2008).
Organizational Psychologists Can Help Raise Morale
There are many areas that an organizational psychologist can operate within an organization. Organizational psychologist can be called upon to raise employee morale which will assist in over-all efficiency and assist with maintaining employee longevity. They may also support organizations human resources with the hiring process, workplace ethics, anti-discrimination guidelines, workplace stress, research, marketing, and information obtainment for statistical and analytically reasons. Organizational psychologists can serve an organization by direct or indirect contact with their employees. They can utilize scientific methods by observing employees, interview future candidates, or devise a survey for pre-employment to aid organizations in hiring. “Organizational Psychologists focus on the productivity of groups and individuals in the workplace, they work to improve the functioning of organizations, and to promote the health of individuals within the organization; they also conduct research on "human factors" or the interaction between people and machines” (Mattiuzzi, 2007).
Jex, S., & Britt, T.(2008) Organizational Psychology. A Scientist-Practitioner Approach, Second Edition, Chapter 1 and 2.
- What is organization? definition and meaning
Definition: A social unit of people, systematically structured and managed to meet a need or to pursue collective...Click to read more about organization.