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The Contemporary Applications of the Classical Management on the Organizational Productivity of the Workers
The classical management was developed to investigate the one best way to apply work techniques and methods in order to increase the labor productivity on their assigned task. This was introduced by Frederick W. Taylor through the scientific theory of management based on new management method to increase the productivity of the workers through “time and motion studies” and the concept of differential rate system. He advocated the scientific theory based on the basic principles on the: science of management; scientific selection of workers; scientific education and development; and cooperation of workers. These are the contemporary applications of the scientific management theory in organization and management for the labor intensive-industries including the manufacturing and service sectors:
1. The scientific and empirical investigation of workers’ productivity.
The manufacturing sector and labor intensive industries have to find ways to reduce the organizational waste by the physical movement and maximum utilization of work force in the use of facilities and equipment. The supervisory work has to consider the work tools, processes and techniques in doing the task to maximize production of units. Usually ,the supervisors and workers have to find ways andmeans the best way to do the job. Until now the time and motion analysis may still at work to the manufacturing sector.
The manufacturing tools and equipment, the distance and use of physical force come into play for the scientific and empirical investigation. The time and motion experience on the manufacturing facility has to be properly investigated. The respondents or key informants on the motion studies are the experienced workers who have been dealing with the job. It is usually the responsibility of the technical supervisor to see to it that no waste on motion and the right to job tools is to be given to workers. What are the consideration in the qualitative scientific investigation of the workers.
a) The time and motion analysis as to the manufacturing use by the workers. The informant investigation will be done to qualitatively analyzed the data as to the per unit output.
b) The gender source, physical appearance, uniform, and other physical characteristics are fitted to certain work operation.
c) The time and motion analysis in relation to the distance of the work facilities and equipment utilize by the workers.
There is always a distinct and unique way to do the job in the manufacturing or service sectors as to its location, size , technology and the spaces of facilities and equipment that would usually affect the motion analysis of the workers. In this motion analysis , the participation of the technical and supervisory work force are enjoined to provide better grasps on the current scenario of the manufacturing firm.
The labor intensive and capital intensive business have to conduct preliminary investigation as to the time and motion analysis and the best way approach in doing the job. The productivity results are very important in this work endeavour in order to produce more units of outputs.
2. The management system in production line.
The manufacturing productivity relies on the speed of production line to transform the raw materials into finished products. The supervisory management system provides the better way to implement the production of goods. The supervisor and other technical staff have to maximize the utilization of work force as to the assigned task and specialization based on the comfort zone and higher productivity of the machineries and equipment. The detailed operation procedures and division of labor have to be implemented to further maximize the unit of outputs.
The production faculties and equipment have its own puzzling way to produce better result on the time and motion studies. There is always a unique procedure in doing the task. The safety guidelines, operation policies and performance results have to complement its other. The branch and extension offices may in some way use similar management system in production line, however, it must properly reviewed as to the facilities and equipment adjustments.
3. Performance Standards and Incentive.
Usually, the pharmaceutical and manufacturing industries have to implement the quota system to the sales representatives as the basis of the performance outputs. The companies and corporation have to set sales quota or production quota to the workers. The productive incentives and commissions is also a good example of differential pay in order to work hard for the additional compensation for producing higher number of units or quota sells in business. The productive incentives and commissions are also good examples of differential pays in order to work hard for the additional compensation for producing higher number of units or quota sells in business.
4. Organizational Functions and Efficiency Techniques.
What is important in the contemporary application of the scientific management theory is the application of the time and motion; and the best way approach. The organization must be flexible enough to find the alternative solutions based on the qualitative analysis of the workers and technical supervisor. This will now come to the organizational adjustments as to the following:
a) The organizational guidelines should be based on the adjusted recommendations and alternatives made by the workers and technical supervisors .
b) The organization functions should be adjusted by the time and motion analysis made by the key informant as to the right work tools, processes and system.
c) The adjustment of organizations operation as suggested by the technical supervisors from their qualitative scientific analysis on the specific location of facilities and equipment.
In this classical management theory on organizational productivity had also included the Gantt Chart developed by Henry Gantt and the Fatigue and Motion Studies developed Frank and William Gilbreths.
The Gant chart was developed by Henry Gantt to assist the workers in planning, managing and controlling the organization. He also focused his studies about the organizational productivity of workers in relation to the incentive system as conceptualized by Frederick W. Taylor.
In planning, the Gantt chart provides the duration of time and activities in doing the task. The advantage of the Gantt chart foresees the division of work and assigned by the workers. The programs and projects are well in placed. In managing the organizational activities it facilitates the supervisor to focus on the specific task and the actual performance of its workers. The general operation may pinpoint concerns and issues about the execution of the organizational activities. It also provides control mechanism as it identifies the organizational activities and resources in certain duration of time.
Until now, the Gantt chart has been used to give the general organizational activities as presented by day, weeks or month of operation. It uses arrows and bar chart to identify the on-going operation of the project. The organizational activities and the completion of task include the name of the project or programs; the strategic activities; and organizational details.
For the complex organizational activities, the PERT/CPM has been used particularly in the construction industry through the engineering groups to identify the critical areas in finishing the project. It is always a requirement in the feasibility study to present the critical path of the engineering project particularly in the construction of roads, buildings , and bridges.
Just like the work of Taylor in the scientific management theory Frank and William Gilbreths were interested to study the human movement and its physical atrophy or fatigue. The scientific research they conducted has an ultimate goal to use the full potential of human beings. The use of motion camera has been done to study the human kinetics and fatigue. It had organizational goal to increase the efficiency of the workers.
In contemporary time, the basic principles of classical management on the time and motion study still a useful management tool not to dehumanize the working conditions but find new ways to improve and enhance the productivity of the workers. The classical management has been very traditional in looking the sources of organizational productivity, however, it remained to be the best solution when utilizing the productivity of workers.