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Management Applied in WWII by Pres. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, Stalin, Mussolini and Hitler
Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt
Management starts with defining objectives then proceeding to attain them
What else could be added to the vast theory of management? Perhaps we should limit this discussion to what happens in praxis, a world war, say, World War II or plain WWII.
The objective was to bring about world peace. Now there was a barrier, the raging WWII. There were actors:Hitler, Mussolini, Tojo, Franklin Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin. There were two sides of the fence, the Axis Powers lead by Hitler, Mussolini and Tojo; the Allied Powers lead by Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin. Let's grant that the Axis Powers wanted peace after WWII. Likewise, the Allied Powers wanted peace after WWII.
Management was the tool used by the Allied Powers and Axis Powers to attain their objectives. Let's see how they used this tool.
Given that Roosevelt had been elected president of the United States, Winston Churchill was installed as prime minister of Great Britain; Joseph Stalin hugged the top post in Russia, Hideki Tojo as prime minister controlled the militarists of Japan; Benito Mussolini had scared away the king of Italy; and Hitler got himself elected as chancellor of Germany by intimidation.
The Allied Powers adopted a sub-objective: unconditional surrender of the Axis Powers. That is unnegotiated peace, unlike in WWI when defeated Germany went to the negotiating table and argued its case on several items. Woodrow Wilson, then president of the United States himself participated as did President Chamberlain of France in the long drawn-out negotiations. The Allied Powers in WWII did not want a repeat of that kind of negotiation. Part of unconditional surrender was to bring the war to the heart of Germany, that is, invade Germany. Again that was unlike in WWI when the Allied Powers did not step on German soil.
A stark feature of the actors of WWII was that Roosevelt was a victim of polio, thus bound to the wheelchair. He could not move about as freely as the other actors did that could be a limitation in his leadership. We find that that handicap contributed to the practice of management.
The objective for the 'Allied Powers may be restated: To bring about world peace where they are dominant.
To attain this objective entailed strategies and tactics. Part of the strategy was "Europe first" meaning to defeat the Axis Powers in Europe then turn to Asia. Meanwhile, domestic affairs in Allied countries should be such that no inflation occurs. That means suppliers of war materiel and manufacturers of ammunition should not be allowed to engage in profiteering. Industries that formerly were engaged in the manufacture of consumer goods were now switched to the manufacture of ammunition.
Early on in Europe it was only France, the low countries, and Britain that were involved in the war on the part of the Allies. Spain, Switzerland and Poland remained neutral; however, Hitler occupied Poland. Switzerland fought Germany with firepower to defend her neutrality. Mussolini did not touch Spain as it was already a dictatorship under Generalissimo Franco with support from the Catholic Church. He conquered Ethiopia instead; he was so proud he had an empire. Hitler knocked France out of the war early by rolling over the obsolete French Maginot line which was "....a system of mammoth, self-contained forts stretching from Switzerland to the vicinity of the Belgian frontier near Montmédy. The reinforced concrete of the forts was thicker than any theretofore used, the disappearing guns bigger and more heavily armoured.... the French failed to extend the line to the sea, relying instead on an outmoded system of unconnected fortresses left over from before World War I....."Encyclopedia Britannica 2009). France stuck with an obsolete technology. In management bring in new technology for better results. France, in June 1940, was split into the Vichy, two-fifths of the country, and three-fifths occupied by the Germans. Still Vichy under Marshal Petain and Pierre Laval was a German satellite. However, since November 1942, Germany occupied all of France with Laval as chief collaborator. Charles de Gaulle went into exile in England. He would be leader in the liberation of France.
The U.S. was still out of the war, owing to harbingers of isolationism. The German U-boat attack on and sinking of the American passenger ship Luisitania whose escort was deliberately called off enabled Roosevelt to give aid to Britain through the lend-lease scheme. How to bring the U.S. into the war? Japan was allowed to attack Pear Harbor on December 7,1941. Actually, the Japanese code had been broken earlier but the solitary scrambler in Pearl Harbor was switched off when the Japanese destroyers were on their way to Hawaii.
"Adm. Husband Kimmel and Gen. Walter Short, the Navy and Army commanders on Oahu, were relieved of duty, and official investigations were begun at once...."(Encyclopedia Britannica 2009). They were never punished. The undeclared war roused the Americans to join the war. Management must employ a way to bring into the new culture a recalcitrant part of its workforce.
Lost ships in Pearl Harbor were easy to replace. In 1940, a ship could be built in 355 days in the USA. In 1943, it took only 56 days to built a ship (Taylor, D. Franklin D. Roosevelt. 2002:45). The new management method of PERT/CPM (project evaluation review technique/critical path management) was responsible for such speed in manufacture. PERT/CPM can be considered a secret weapon of WWII.
The principles of delegation in management were used. Due to his handicap, Roosevelt became a master of delegation. Roosevelt created the Office of the War Mobilization to coordinate the production of war hardware. This job was done successfully by Bernard Baruch as chairman of the War Industries Board of WWI (Baruch, B. My Public Years. 1960). The development of war strategy and tactics was delegated to Gen. George C. Marshall who was Armed Forces chief of staff. It was his task to find able military men to direct the European drive and the Asian drive. Gen. Douglas MacArthur, major general since 1930, who was in retirement and serving as adviser to President Quezon of the Philippines, was called back to active military duty to serve as commander of the army of the Southwest Pacific theater.
Admiral Chester Nimitz was made commander of the US navy in the same theater. Unity of command was sacrificed as a concession to the navy to redeem itself having been the first butt of the Japanese sneak attack on Pearl Harbor. In management share the glory.
Gen. Marshall still had to find his commander for Europe. Gen. Dwight Eisenhower was still a colonel in 1941. He was a former assistant of Gen. MacArthur in the Philippines. Besides he had not commanded a division in actual combat; he had won several titles as coach in football tournaments in the army. However, he had devised a scenario of war games that involved 500,000 troops. Marshall took him, made him to command the successful Allied invasion of French north Africa in 1942, with the rank of lieutenant general. Gen. Bernard Montgomery of Great Britain served under him. Now it could be said that he had commanded more than a division in combat. Leap frogging 366 American generals he was appointed Supreme Commander in December 1943 to lead the Allied forces to invade Germany. In management, promote personnel based on performance.
Because the Americans had more troops, ammunition, and financing, they wanted to lead the assault on the Germans now that Italy had been defeated. Eisenhower was promoted in a hurry until he was made Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe; he was now one rank higher than Gen. Bernard Montgomery, the bet of Great Britain for the post who drove German General Erwin Rommel , the "Desert Fox" from the deserts of Africa. A principle of management in leadership was applied here.
Gen. Eisenhower brought along his own brand of leadership. He adopted Scott's anaconda as strategy in the battlefield and made England the jumping board for the assault forces toward Germany. Allied 48 divisions formed a cordon stretching from North Sea to Switzerland spanning 600 miles. On D-D day 156,000 soldiers landed in Normandy, France that swelled to 1,000,000.
Scott's anaconda was developed by Gen. Winfield Scott, chief of staff of the U.S. armed forces when Lincoln became president, with help from Gen. George B. McClellan. Scott's anaconda was the military strategy that brought about the defeat of the South in the American Civil War. Anaconda is a giant snake that suppresses its prey by constriction. President Lincoln's contribution to it was "destroy the army" instead of "capture territory." The German army tried to breach Scott's anaconda by means of the Battle of the Bulge in 1944 to no avail.
Scott's anaconda could bring about results not just throw in efforts. In war, even in business or government service, results should be the focus of management. The South threw in efforts during the American Civil War; Scott's anaconda produced results for the North.
It was not all war in the mind of Eisenhower, though. When he went over to London to evaluated England as jumping board to Normandy, he was given a driver who could go around roadblocks created by V-2 rocket bombs that the Germans unleased during the Battle of Britain. The men were in the battlefields and some women volunteered to drive Eisenhower's party around. When Eisenhower was stationed again in London to prepare for the cross-channel invasion he looked for the same driver. Her name was Kay Summersby (who wrote a book Beyond Forgetting), a fine lady born to a well-off family who owned cars. How else could she become an expert driver! Eisenhower found in her no reason to be lonely; she took care that Eisenhower did not feel lonely either. He considered a divorce to marry Kay but some somber minds dissuaded him, perhaps looking toward a political future for the general. After WWII she came over to work at the Pentagon.
In January 1943, Roosevelt and Churchill met in Casablanca, Morocco to plan the invasion of Sicily, Italy. Stalin was invited but he declined to attend. After the conference Roosevelt took Eisenhower to a tate-a-tate. Eisenhower confided to the President it is true he had a guardian angel. Roosevelt reportedly said, "I will not be the one to throw the first stone."
In management, capitalize on strength. Eisenhower was strong as a military strategist but maybe weak with women. That weakness did not matter to Roosevelt. He was like President Lincoln on Gen. Ulysses Grant who was then under Gen. Henry Halleck, who replaced Gen McClellan as army commander, during the American Civil War. For winning one crucial battle, Lincoln wanted to promote Gen. Grant to which Gen. Halleck remarked: "Gen. Grant drinks one, too many." Lincoln retorted: "if his drink makes him win battles other generals should drink it, too," according to Peter F. Drucker in his book "The Effective Executive." Eventually, Lincoln appointed Gen. Grant commander of the North Army.
Mussolini invaded Ethiopia without informing Hitler beforehand. The conquest of Ethiopia compromised Italy's forces for the counters by the Allied Forces and weakened the political position of Mussolini. Hitler tried to rescue him by sending troops. When Mussolini was voted out by the Fascist Grand Council and arrested in July 1943, the German forces moved out of Italy and Allied forces moved in. Don't allow allies, especially subordinates, to breach protocol or policy.
Hitler did not have all Germany sweetly sewed up for him. The head of his military intelligence, Wilhelm Canaris, was living up to name of his office.
“Believing that the Nazi regime would ultimately destroy traditional conservative values and that its foreign ambitions were dangerous to Germany, he enlisted some of the anti-Hitler conspirators into the Abwehr and shielded their activities….”(Encyclopedia Britannica 2009).
Canaris plotted an assassination of Hitler upon which Churchill pinned his hopes the war would soon be over. Churchill was updated by intelligence report; he took it up with Roosevelt in their Casablanca conference. When the attempt failed (July 1944) Canaris was arrested then executed. However, this fiasco dragged down Gen. Rommel who was suspected of concocting the assassination plot. Gen. Rommel committed suicide. In management, the head should stamp his class on his organization. Harold Ickes, former secretary of Interior of Roosevelt was aware of this. He "raised hell" (Ickes's terms) with his deputy who was making the organization loyal to himself not to Ickes (Ickes, H. The Secret Diary of Harold Ickes. 1955).
Gen. Eisenhower applied Scott’s anaconda in the European theater. Even if Gen. MacArthur saw its merits, being a favorite dish at West Point, he could not employ it in the Southwest Pacific where the battlefield consisted of several islands, channels and seas. MacArthur devised the “island hopping” strategy, from Midway to Coral Sea, to Solomon Islands, to Gilbert Island, to Marianas, to Palau, then to the Philippines leaving thousands of Japanese soldiers out in the cold and starvation. They were not accounted for as prisoners but were counted out from the shooting range nevertheless. In management, adapt strategy to the terrain and character of the customer.
Innovation makes a leap forward ahead of the pack. It pays for management to conduct research and development. In WWII, new technology came with tanks, the Grant and the Sherman, named after Gen. Grant and Gen. William Sherman respectively. The Sherman tank “had a faster rate of fire and greater speed, but both the Panther and the Tiger had significantly greater range and accuracy. The German tanks were also more survivable. Consequently, it took superior numbers for Anglo-American forces to defeat German armoured formations….” (Encyclopedia Britannica 2009).
Though outnumbered by the Luftwaffe, the Royal Air Force of the United Kingdom made it up with accuracy, thanks to radar. This was invented by Guglielmo Marconi whose father was an Italian and whose mother was a British. Marconi set up his shop and business in London. Although he was an Italian patriot and was called by Mussolini to provide radar technology to Italy the United Kingdom benefited from his radar as well.
“The internal combustion engine made possible the most spectacular naval innovation of World War II, the shallow-draft landing craft used to bring large forces quickly to enemy beaches during amphibious assaults….” (Encyclopedia Britannica 2009).
If you were the head of your organization, support your staff don't compete with them. This was demonstrated by President Lincoln and President Roosevelt. If Lincoln was sometimes his own commander in the American Civil War, it was because he was looking for a general who would adopt his "destroy-the-army" tactic instead of "capture territory." This latter concept was drilled into West Point graduates like Confederacy President Jefferson Davis (who was a colonel when he went into politics), Gen. Robert Lee, Gen. Joseph Johnston, Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard of the South and Gen. McClellan, Gen. Halleck, Gen. Sherman and Gen. Grant of the North. The latter two metamorphosed into Lincoln's concept. Lincoln and Roosevelt gave long ropes to Gen. Grant and Gen. Marshall, respectively. President Davis was his own commander of the South army for 14 months. The South congress created the position of general-in-chief of the army for Gen. Lee but Pres. Davis vetoed it. Later on he appointed Gen. Lee as army commander but still he did not give him enough rope as Gen. Grant enjoyed under President Lincoln. Gen. Lee was on his 13th month as commander when he surrendered his army to Gen. Grant in Virginia on April 19,1864.
In contrast, Hitler harangued his generals into his strategy. He was so pleased with himself, a corporal in the First World War dictating upon generals.
Vigorously implement a right idea or concept no matter who originated it. This was shown by Alfred P. Sloan, Jr. of General Motors. This was shown by Gen. Eisenhower.
Although bound to the wheelchair, Roosevelt (Democrat) was able to lift the vision of Americans. He won the presidency the first time around with the hope that he would be able to save America from the Great Depression. He said, we have nothing to fear, only fear itself. He instituted public works to create jobs. He declared a banking holiday; purged the banking system and allowed only trustworthy banks to reopen. He signed into law the bill sponsored by a Republican, George Tecumseh Norris, creating the Tennessee Valley Authority. Earlier, it was vetoed by President Herbert Hoover (Norris, G. T.. The Fighting Liberal. 1964). He was voted to an unprecedented four terms as president. Now the same person can only have two terms as president. Lifting visions to higher heights is leadership. Leadership belongs in management.
The enterprise we are discussing poses some difficulty because even if there was a unitary purpose three independent organizations were involved. Add to that the fact of varied personalities. Field Marshal Stalin was a communist, a former protégé of Lenin. Churchill adhered in democratic monarchy; Roosevelt ran a constitutional democracy. Churchill and Roosevelt were close because they were blood cousins, the Americans having been emigrants from Britain. But Russians had a different lineage altogether. The Big Three were united by one common enemy, towards the later part of WWII. The reason was that Stalin entered into a non-aggression pack with Hitler so that he did not expect Hitler to attack Russia. Put another way, he did not prepare Russia for a defense against Hitler's Germany. When France was knocked out of the game, Britain stood as the last barrier in the West for Hitler when the U.S. was still out of the war. Churchill asked Roosevelt for help; Roosevelt could only respond with the land-lease scheme but did not declare war against the Axis Powers; he could not without the approval by U.S. congress. It was only after the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor, December, 8,1941, that the U.S. entered the war. Roosevelt and Churchill came together and conducted the war by summitry. In management, strive to make the culture of your organization homogenous.The U.S. and Great Britain had two contrasting military cultures. The latter was fond of the "underbelly" shown in the mopping up operations in French north Africa. America was fond of the frontal attack shown by the cross-channel invasion and march toward Germany. Being the major partner, America won out.
When Hitler attacked Russia (1942), Stalin called the West for help. He could not join the summit in Casablanca, Morocco with Roosevelt and Churchill as he was busy countering the German assault. That would have been his first summit with them after Russia was forced into the war. In Stalin's mind the West deliberately delayed their cross-channel invasion to bleed Russia. If the cross-channel invasion came sooner; Hitler would have been fighting in two fronts that less troops would be devoted to the Russian campaign. Russia was largely saved by the winter. The Big Three finally held a summit at Yalta in the Crimea on February 4-11,1945 when Hitler's Germany was already on the verge of defeat. At that time Roosevelt was already very sick, threatened by stroke or heart disease. His close assistant Harry Hopkins was also sick. Gen. Marshall who was with Roosevelt in Yalta wanted Russia to enter the war against Japan. Had MacArthur been consulted, he would have objected to it because he was already in Luzon, Philippines, his jumping board nearest to Japan. Admiral Nimitz had already secured Okinawa, an island of Japan. If Russia did not come against Japan, no Russian army would have landed in Korea (and the present Korea problem would be remote). The seeds of rivalry between the West and Russia could have been dormant during WWII that began to regrow as the unifying force was dissipating.
On March 1,1945, Roosevelt addressed Congress on a wheelchair, the first time he did so now in his fourth term as president. His voiced faltered (Taylor, D. Franklin D. Roosevelt. 2002:49). On April 12,1945, Roosevelt died of hemorrhagic stroke at the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis in Georgia (Klugger, J. Splendid Solution, Dr. Jonas Salk and the Conquest of Polio. 2009). Harry S. Truman, an amateur, took over him. He made it to the vice-presidency with the reputation of being a corruption buster in the administration of Roosevelt. He was not adept with his new position that, in his desk in the White House, he posted a reminder: "The Buck Stops Here." He ordered the dropping of atomic bombs over civilians in Japan without getting the opinion of Gen. MacArthur. Personalities play out in management.
The ends: some desired, others not
Hitler committed suicide on April 30,1945 together with Eva Braun his former mistress whom he married the day before. Hitler's Germany surrendered on May 7,1945. It was split into West Germany and East Germany occupied by Russia that also occupied Poland. Russia occupied or turned all of eastern Europe satellites and Stalin reneged on his promise to have free elections there. West Germany was occupied by the U.S., Great Britain, and France. France was liberated in September 1944 with de Gaulle as leader chosen over Giraud. Germany's military industry was abolished. War criminals were tried in Nurernberg. Wernhern Braun and his team responsible for the production of V-2 rockets surrendered to the U.S. (They developed the rocket Saturn for the Apollo space program.) Laval was tried and executed in 1945. Petain was imprisoned for life. Italy was defeated midway of WWII; Mussolini tried to escape, was captured and hanged together with his wife. The one-square mile territory for the Vatican was not touched by the Allied Powers. This was an emolument to the Pope by Mussolini to get the support of the Catholic Church for his dictatorship in Italy. The Vatican was recognized also as a state. Russia got the right over Manchuria, with consent from Roosevelt who apparently forgot that Manchuria is part of China where Russia earlier built railroads as contractor. (Like Russia, the French and the British built railroads in Manchuria under the Unequal Treaties.) Russia got three votes in the United Nations yet to be organized. (Apparently, it was the reward Stalin demanded for Russia having suffered the brunt of Hitler's assaults when the Western allies "delayed" their cross-channel invasion). Other countries, including the U.S. got only one vote each. The U.S. dollar replaced the British pound as international currency. The U.S. emerged as the only source of credit in the world. The U.S. gave out loans to other countries through the Marshall Plan. The U.S. used the Marshall Plan loans to shape the economic policies of loan recipients including France, and Britain. Russia entered the war with Japan and since Japan occupied Korea Russia and the U.S. were obliged to drive away the Japanese there. Both countries landed their armies in Korea. Russia operated north of the 38th parallel; the U.S. operated south of it. The shooting war of the Cold War started in Korea that had been split into North Korea and South Korea.
(The Cold War is now over; the civil war in Korea has stalemated).
Japan surrendered on August 10,1945, without the abolition of the emperor but subject to the discretion of the occupation commander. It was occupied by the U.S.; Gen. MacArthur, as Supreme Commander of the Southwest Pacific theater, was administrator who imposed a constitution, women suffrage, and liberal education. MacArthur broke up feudalism which was the base of power of the militarists in Japan which has been prohibited from forming a big army. Gen. Tomoyuki Yamashita, who overrun Malaya, captured the British navy at Singapore and was responsible for the defense of the Philippines against Gen. MacArthur, was tried of war atrocities and was hanged in Los Baños, Laguna on February 23,1945. Hideki Tojo who was virtual dictator of Japan during much of WWII attempted suicide but failed. He was nursed back to health and tried for war crimes then hanged on April 29,1946. Civil war resumed in China which was eventually won by the forces of Mao Tse-tung. The U.S. rehabilitated Japan. The Philippines gained independence from the U.S. on July 4.1946. The U.S. has retained the country as a neocolony through the comprador class whose base of power is feudalism. Other countries were made to amend their constitutions to allow the superpowers equal rights as those of their citizens to exploit their natural resources. In business, power accruing to position seldom succeeds. It should be used only as a last resort, in case of insubordination, for example. Use of persuasive power is more effective.
The pertinent amendment to the constitution of the Philippines is as follows:
"...the disposition, exploitation, development, and utilization of all agricultural, timber, and mineral lands of the public domain, waters, minerals, coal, petroleum, and other natural resources of the Philippines, and the operation of public utilities, shall, if open to any person, be open to citizens of the United States and to all forms of business enterprises owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by citizens of the United States...." (qtd. in Agoncillo, T. A. History of the Filipino People.1990:438).
Atomic age ushered in
On August 6,1945, the U.S. dropped an atomic bombed on Hiroshima killing 70,000 to 80,000 and injuring 70,000 people, mostly civilians. Two days later, the U.S. dropped another bomb on Nagasaki killing 35,000 to 40,000 and injuring 35,000 people (Encyclopedia Britannic 2009). Thus came the atomic age. This is an undesired end as the atomic bomb is a threat to humankind and the earth.
Outright and subtle ends
Outright ends achieved might be easy to pinpoint but the subtle ones may appear after sometime. One way to take a handle on ends and means to these ends is to make a survey of superstructures. Upon reaching some milestones, ends or changes must be evaluated whether they are reforms or restructuring. We will use 'protocol' in place of 'change' for distinctiveness. An example of end: Japan is prohibited from forming a big army except for defensive purposes; provided further, upon the discretion of the occupation forces commander. An example of protocol: A recipient of a Marshall Plan loan puts up a counterpart in its own currency, 5% of the whole pot belongs to the U.S.; the U.S. specifies how the recipient uses the whole pot (Kolko, J and G. Kolko. The Limits of Power. 1972). A reform is an end or protocol that falls within the superstructure; a restructuring is an end or protocol that goes beyond the superstructures. Then these will be judged as to whether they are desired or not.
For example, the superstructure of world trade before WWII. Great Britain was dominant, the international currency was the pound. The market of Great Britain was virtually closed to the United States.
The state of world trade after WWII: The U.S. dollar is the world currency. The value of one ounce of gold is fixed at US35.00. The market of Great Britain is open to the United States.
So, what happened? The end attained is beyond the superstructures.This end now serves as the new superstructure.
Is this desired? It is desired by the United States but not by Great Britain.
We can see that there might be some injustice in that among the Allied Powers one is on top of the other. That is how it is. Could that injustice be righted? It might take another world cataclysm to do that. In fact, it was a world cataclysm, WWII, that brought it about. It could be said that had it not been for the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor, the U.S. could have sat at the fence and watch the Europeans weaken themselves.
Justice failed. Power turned loose and was now playing on the allies converting them into rivals. Management must be just and impartial.
[Discussions on such kind of topics can result in volumes.]
The amendments on country constitutions fall under protocol. Countries are forced to amend their constitutions. This was agreed upon by the Big Three, the U. S. (President Roosevelt), Great Britain (Prime Minister Churchill) and Russia (Field Marshall Stalin) during their conference in Yalta in February 1945. That is, without prior consultations with other countries, allies that contributed their armies in the war effort like France, Canada, Australia, Nationalist China. In decision-making involve the rank and file.
The Filipino soldiers within the United States Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) together with American soldiers derailed the schedule of the Japanese drive in the Pacific that Japan failed to occupy Australia. Gen MacArthur gave that evaluation who used Australia as the jumping board for the defeat of Japan. MacArthur said the use of the atomic bomb was not necessary to exact an unconditional surrender of Japan. However, Filipinos cannot claim credit for their contributions as a nation because at that time the Philippines was still a commonwealth of the United States. The Philippines had been scheduled to attain independence on July 4,1945 but for the Japanese occupation. Give praise to whom it is due.
Such unilateral decisions (or secret agreements) of the Big Three are what Bernard Baruch meant when he said that the United States will not be sold down the river.
What happened to our main personalities? Mussolini was rescued by the Germans on September 12,1943, lived in exile but was shot to death as he tried to escape from Allied assaults on April 28,1945. Hitler committed suicide in April 30,1945. Tojo attempted suicide but failed, was hanged on December 23,1948. Roosevelt died of hemorrhagic stroke on April 12,1945. Stalin died suddenly on March 5,1953 when he was about to launch "Doctor's plot" yet another reign of terror against medicine men. Churchill bounced back to the Parliament and became premier up to 1953 when he resigned for poor health. He died on January 24,1965.
MacArthur, who before the secret agreement had jurisdiction over Korea, was not informed immediately after the Yalta conference about the entry of Russia in the war against Japan. He was virtually caught by surprise by the landing of a Russian army in the Korean peninsula that he had to rush to get approval from Russia and the U.S. of the 38th parallel as the demarcation line of operations between the two countries (Hunter, F. The Untold Story of Douglas MacArthur.1954). Otherwise, the Russians could have moved farther down south of Seoul. In management, inform subordinates of major changes in the organization.
It looks like even MacArthur did not know the the Cold War was on. Another undesired protocol.
The Cold War was only by proxy, meaning confrontations between proteges of the superpowers. It was not to be an all-out confrontation between the U.S. and Russia, but a limited war. To win the Korean war, MacArthur as commander of the United Nations armed forces in South Korea wanted to bomb Manchuria, a "privileged sanctuary" as he called it, used by North Korean and Chinese forces dispatched by Mao Tse-Tung as launch pad. But Gen. Marshall and President Truman were wary that Russia and China, now under Mao, might declare war on the U.S. MacArthur disagreed, he wanted to apply the "hot pursuit" principle. When he thought he could not restrain MacArthur, especially in giving statements of policy through the mass media without clearance, Truman relieved him as commander of the U. N. forces in Korea and as Supreme Commander of the Southwest Pacific theater. Thus, ending the military career of Gen. MacArthur. In his speech before the U.S. Congress after his dismissal, MacArthur said: "In war there is no substitute for victory." (Hunter, F. The Untold Story of Douglas MacArthur. 1954). In management, as head don't let anyone in your organization go over your head. MacArthur suspected the Internationalist and businessmen of appeasement with China who have considered it as a great market. Seen another way, the dismissal of MacArthur could have been spurred by his nomination in 1944, 1948 and 1952 by the conservative wing of the Republican Party to the presidency. President Truman was a Democrat poised to run for reelection.
World peace where the Allied Powers were dominant was attained. But world peace lasted only for about five years. We can mark it as that interval between the unconditional surrender of Japan. August 10,1945, up until the time North Korea invaded South Korea, June 25.1950. Another kind of war, the Cold War, commenced. Perhaps it started at the Yalta conference or even earlier in the minds of the Allied leaders. No world peace yet again.
By world peace, we mean no armed scuffle between the West and Russia. But there was no peace within the U.S.S.R. Marshal Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia, although one on ideology with Stalin was a patriot. He wanted an independent Yugoslavia: "Stalin then opted for a public condemnation of Tito and for the expulsion of the CPY from the Cominform, the European organization of mainly ruling communist parties. In the ensuing war of words, economic boycotts, and occasional armed provocations (during which Stalin briefly considered military intervention), Yugoslavia was cut off from the Soviet Union and its eastern European satellites and steadily drew closer to the West" (Encyclopedia Britannica 2009). Broz Tito was premier in 1945-53 and president from 1953 to 1980.
Did management fail? Man failed.
Justice has taken a back seat. Power has taken over. Power will play out for a long time to come.