ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

internal control audit and auditors

Updated on February 27, 2013

As far as fraud and error prevention are concerned, the establishment and maintenance of a good system of internal controls is and will still remain the best measure that can be taken to minimize or prevent fraud and error.

Internal controls are those calculated conscious actions that an organization take so as be assured that reasonable assurance towards meeting her objectives are guaranteed, those objectives are to ensure that;

Financial information (financial statements) are reliable,

Operations are carried out in an effective and efficient manner,

Companies assets are protected and

Provisions of laws, rules and regulations are strictly adhered to

In the bid to reduce or prevent fraud, companies set out control objectives that when achieved will mean a reduced level of prevalence of fraud.

To achieve this, control goals/ objectives and control plans/ actions needs to be in place.

While control objectives sets out what is acceptable, control plans are strategies put in place to achieve these objectives while be; preventive control plan, detective plan objectives or corrective control plan.

For a business to achieve a reasonable assurance that her control objectives will be met, the above three control plans must be combined. However, preventive control is the one that helps prevent fraud and errors which is the subject matter of this article.

I struggled to really understand the aspect of Auditing that deals with internal control throughout my University days. The main reason for this my difficulty was because of the numerous control plans that are to be inplace in order to achieve the desired control objective

This my ordeal continued even after graduation until I attended a workshop organized by the Nigerian Chapter of ACCA. In that workshop, an acronyms formed with ACCA was given to us by one of the speakers and that changed my situation. But, hey! Don’t laugh at me and my dull brain hehehe.



Approval and Authorization must be obtained for every material project. Materiality is a relative term that is used to describe the influence the inclusion or exclusion of an item would have on a decision maker’s opinion. This approval must always come from an authorized person.


Figures should be compared. It could be on a; daily, weekly, monthly basis. Actual performance is compared with budgeted performance. This can also be called variance analysis.


Computer controls is of two kinds. Physical access controls and logical access controls. Physical access controls has to do with physical security measures taken to protect the computer, for example, keeping the computer in a locked room. Logical access controls are those measures taken to limit the use of computer and its resources. More information on computer controls can be found on this website they have sections that can be accessed by non-members or better still, you can register with them to get more benefit.


Stuffs like bank reconciliation, statement of financial position (balance sheet) reconciliation, receivables reconciliation, payables reconciliation and suppliers’ reconciliation can be performed on a fairly regular basis.


A lot of frauds and errors can be prevented by simply maintaining a control account that will be reviewed regularly.


This will help uncover minor errors that would have otherwise not been detected. Frauds also can be uncovered through this singular act. System should be put in place to re-calculate figures for possible errors or outright fraud.


Can anybody from anywhere walk into a company’s premise and do whatever he she likes? Controls must be in place to restrict this. Guards should be at the gate to monitor those that come in and out of the company. Smartcards can be used to restrict physical access to sensitive areas of a company


Is a CRIME not to have proper segregation of duty in an organization. Though, employees might collude to perpetrate fraud or crime but, the presence of segregation of duty will at least give the perpetrators some extra work to do. A person that raise invoice should not be the same person that will dispatch and record sales.

The above tips cover both the general, application and systems and control plans. I want to make an assumption here and that assumption is that you were having the same problem that I had and that this article has help solve that problem.


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • profile image


      7 years ago

      It’s a hot enough writing about study. Guys dream about such kind of high writing skills. But they must buy the dissertation philosophie recommended by some distinguished custom dissertation.

    • chinweike profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from Glasgow, UK

      @Chindy, thanks for reading this hub and asking a question.

      The treatment of fraud and error is to implement correcttive controls. By putting corrective controls in place, errors will be detected and corrected. However, the best form of control is the one the prevents the fraud and error from taking place.


    • profile image

      chindy okoye 

      8 years ago

      I love this,pls wat are de treatments of fraud & error

    • chinweike profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from Glasgow, UK

      summaiya soomro, Thanks for your comment. I am happy to know that you enjoyed this hub and decide to share it.


    • profile image

      summaiya soomro 

      9 years ago from karachi

      chinweike, i will for sure share this hub. tc and happy hubbing:)

    • chinweike profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from Glasgow, UK

      LeanMan, Can you please explain what you mean by this? Anyways, thanks for the comment.


    • LeanMan profile image


      9 years ago from At the Gemba

      It is a pity that we can't just trust people today!!!!

    • chinweike profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from Glasgow, UK

      summaiya soomro, Good to know that you are an ACCA student. ACCA is no doubt the leading accounting professional body in the world.

      I am glad to know that this hub really helped you. You can do others the same favour by sharing this hub with them. Internal control aspect of the accounting sysllabus used to be my problem until i was able to figure it out.

      Thanks once again for your comment.


    • profile image

      summaiya soomro 

      9 years ago from karachi

      nice hub..i am an acca student and i found this hub really helpful for my audit exam:)


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)