ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

1066: A Year to Conquer England? (Part 1)

Updated on July 18, 2017

Edward the Confessor is Dying

In late 1065 and early 1066 Edward the Confessor became ill and died. King Edward left no heirs so a succession crisis began to grip Anglo-Saxon England with 4 main contenders emerging to claim the throne themselves.

Land

There were 4 main earldoms on England at this time: East Anglia, Mercia, Northumbria and Wessex. Wessex was the biggest of these earldoms and therefore the one that generated the most money and had the wealthiest earl. Money was power in Anglo-Saxon England and Harold Godwinson, Earl of Wessex, was in a prime position for the English throne: on the doorstep of London and the richest man in England. After Edward's death the Wittan council voted for Harold to become the king.

England's Earldoms as they were in 1066
England's Earldoms as they were in 1066

The Claimants

Edgar Æthling

The closest living relative to Edward, and therefore the most legitimate heir, was only 15 at the time of Edward's death. As a result his claim was weak and we see the other 3 claimants become more dominant and, often, Edgar is forgotten to history.

Harald Hardrada

The Vikings lost the throne when the King before Edward, Hardecanute, died and still felt like they had a right to the land. When Edward took the throne the vikings, and Hardrada's father were too busy defending their lands to contest the throne. However, when Edward died Hardrada was quick to lay his claim to the throne, despite being in Norway. Harold Godwinson's own brother, Tostig, who was exiled after rebellions against him, fought alongside Hardrada when he attempted to invade.

Harold Godwinson

The most powerful man in all of England and the Earl of Wessex was supposedly promised the throne on Edward's deathbed. As he was the only one in England who could really do this Harold took the throne unopposed, for now at least, on the 5th of January 1066.

Duke William Of Normandy

Duke William, a distant cousin to Edward, claimed that Edward promised him his throne during his chldhood when he was living in Normandy. He also claimed that Harold Godwinson himself swore an oath on the Bible to give him the throne after arriving in Normandy a few years earlier, something Harold denied and was likely to have been forced under threat.

Harold's Coronation

Harold was chosen to be the next king by the Wittan council of England who convened upon the death of a king and elected the next king. Usually they would choose the heir but in this case there was no heir. Naturally, they chose the wealthiest Englishman as an Englishman should have the English throne. However this caused outrage among others who saw the throne as theirs. Harald Hardrada and William of Normandy started preparations for war with Harold. Knowing this, Harold mobilized his army in the spring of 1066, expecting a Summer invasion from William, and stationed them along the South Coast in his home Earldom of Wessex.

The famous Anglo-Saxon shield wall was a feature of all English battles in 1066
The famous Anglo-Saxon shield wall was a feature of all English battles in 1066

Armies

Harold Godwinson

The English army was by no means small, however many of the "soldiers" in the army were Fyrd (basically peasants called up to fight. Most fought without armour or decent weapons because they had to provide them themselves and many couldn't afford to.)The other part was the fearsome Housecarls who wielded Dane axes, a sign of their Viking ancestry and the warrior culture. They usually wore chainmail armour and were the King's go to men for battles. Harold also joined the ranks and fought alongside his men in many battles. There were around 10,000 soldiers in total.

Harald Hardrada

Hardrada's army was similar to Godwinson's in many ways, the main difference being that they were more experienced from the war waging and pillaging ways of the Vikings. They had around 9,000 soldiers in total, including the contribution of Godwinson's own brother Tostig. The Viking army liked to party after a victory.

William of Normandy

The Norman army was situated right at the heart of Medieval Europe and as a consequence was right up to date with the latest military techniques. Having recently fought some wars on behalf of the Pope, William was very rich and his men very experienced. His army incorporated normal infantry, archers and the latest advancement, cavalry. Although he had experience in the Norman and European ways of doing battle, the English shield wall tactic was Scandinavian in origin so the Normans hadn't encountered it before.


Book Version

1066: The Year of the Conquest
1066: The Year of the Conquest

This book gave me all the basic knowledge of the Norman invasion and more and is surely an essential to all studying their invasion and the outcome of the year. Must Buy!

 

Based off this article, who do you think would end 1066 on the English throne?

See results

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)