ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

A Theory of Trust in Healthcare

Updated on September 6, 2014

A Concept of Trust as a Theory

Concepts have been identified as observed phenomenon and said to be the building blocks of theory (Bell & Duffy, 2009). Chinn and Kramer (2011) believe that concepts do not remain static but instead change over time and in different contexts and should justifiably relate to the practice of nursing (p. 163). According to Bell and Duffy (2009), people moving towards distrust when expectations were not being met changed course as a result of trusting interactions, thus describing trust as dynamic and complex.

Trust can be defined in various ways depending on literature and dictionary use. The Oxford Dictionary Online (2011) defines trust as, “Confidence in or reliance on some quality or attribute of a person or thing, or the truth of a statement.” Bell and Duffy (2009) state trust is “the optimistic acceptance of a vulnerable situation, following careful assessment, in which the truster believes that the trustee has his best interests as paramount.” Furthermore, Radwin and Cabral (2010) define trust theoretically as “the confidence that care would be appropriate, reliable and as successful as possible”. I define trust as having confidence in someone or something.

Why is Trust Important to Nursing?

Chinn and Kramer (2011) say that our beliefs and attitudes about the nature of nursing influence our concept choice (p. 163). I believe that the importance of trust in nursing is two-fold. First, trust is an integral part of the nurse-patient relationship. In all patient settings, patients trust their nurses to perform critical surveillance, and to provide comfort, education, and support (Radwin & Cabral, 2010). Without trust in nursing, patients may delay treatment, withhold important information, and have increased anxiety, depression, and pain. They will be less satisfied with the nurses, institutions, and quality of care received.

Trust is also important between nursing staff in order to provide safe, effective, high quality patient care. Nurses rely on each other for assistance with cares, resources for information, and support in times of distress. Without trust, teamwork is a difficult task. Promoting trust can further profits, in that teamwork and communication are improved, thus increasing productivity (Bell & Duffy, 2009). Student nurses also trust in their nurse educators to teach them correct and complete material. If we promote trust in nursing care, it creates a culture of trust and organizational effectiveness (Bell & Duffy, 2009).

Defining Trust: What Does the Literature Say?

Literature had identified several components of trust. Bell and Duffy (2009) identified the characteristics as expectation of competence, goodwill of others, fragility/vulnerability, and the element of risk. With nursing, the public expects competent performance. “ Once trust in the goodwill of others is established, the truster hands over an element of control to the trusted, hence leading to vulnerability or fragility to either psychological or physical harm” (Bell & Duffy, 2009). The authors go further to describe the element of risk, stating that there is always the possibility that the trustee may not act appropriately (Bell & Duffy, 2009).

Other sources of literature have described trust using overlapping characteristics. Radwin and Cabral’s (2010) characteristics specifically involve patient-centered care. The authors stated attentiveness, caring, coordination, continuity, and competence in the form of professional knowledge characterize trust (Radwin & Cabral, 2010). Thom, Hall, and Pawlson (2004) conceptualized that interpersonal relationship skills, clinician competency, and duty to the patient are the characteristics of trust. All sources agree that clinical competence is an important component.

Assumptions of a Trust Theory

Assumptions
a) A need is required for trust. “The truster must have a perception of competence regarding the trustee; otherwise what they are feeling is hope, rather than trust”
b) A past positive outcome with the person or institution must be present for trust to arise.
c) Trust cannot occur unless the risk is evaluated.
Bell and Duffy (2009)

Trust and Other Concepts

Structure is essential to theory because it flows from relationships (Chinn & Kramer, 2011, p. 194). We have established that other concepts related to trust include competence, confidence, caring, goodwill, risk, and hope. How does trust and the other concepts relate to nursing research, practice, education, and management?

Trust is a complex concept in that its nature is pervasive and essential (Bell & Duffy, 2009). There are many opportunities to study the association of trust and nursing, particularly between trust, hope, and patient safety. With nursing practice, trust is essential to prevent feelings of betrayal, stress, and vulnerability with patients. Bell and Duffy (2009) state with trust a successful care-giving relationship is formed, reducing anxiety and promoting healing. In terms of education, nurse educators need to embrace trust as it is achieved using skilled interventions, education, and obedience to professional behavior codes (Bell & Duffy, 2009). Mangers who promote an environment of trust will see better productivity through increased teamwork and communication (Bell & Duffy, 2009).

References

Bell, L., & Duffy, A. (2009). A concept analysis of nurse--patient trust. British Journal of Nursing (BJN), 18(1), 46-51. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Chinn, P. & Kramer, M. (2011). Integrated theory and knowledge development in nursing (8th Ed.) Mosby Elsevier: St Louis, Missouri

Radwin, L. E., & Cabral, H. J. (2010). Trust in Nurses Scale: construct validity and internal reliability evaluation. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(3), 683-689. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2009.05168.x

Ricchiuto, J. (2006). The trust equation [photo]. Retrieved from http://www.networkweaving.com/blog/uploaded_images/TrustEquation-718721.jpg

Thom, D., Hall, M., & Pawlson, L. (2004). Measuring patients' trust in physicians when assessing quality of care: every reason for measuring other aspects of quality applies with equal force to measuring trust. Health Affairs, 23(4), 124-132. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Trust, n. (2011). In Oxford English dictionary online. Retrieved from http://www.oed.com.libweb.ben.edu/view/Entry/207004?rskey=MnWPaI&result=1&isAdvanced=false

Yatzeck, E. (2011). Trust builds relationships [photo]. Retrieved from http://pagilista.blogspot.com/2011/02/on-trust.html

Comments

Submit a Comment

No comments yet.

working

This website uses cookies

As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

Show Details
Necessary
HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
Features
Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
Marketing
Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
Statistics
Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)