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Acids and Alkali
Acids and alkali are substances that are used in the manufacturing industry and in our daily lives. There are many types of acids and alkali. Citric acid and sulfuric acid are types of acid while calcium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide are types of alkali
The pH level determines if a substance is acidic or alkaline. If the pH is within 1 to 6, it's acidic. If it's above 7 it's alkaline. The pH level of 7 means the substance is neutral. The lower the pH level, the more acidic a substance is. The higher the pH level, the more alkaline the substance is. You can determine the pH level of a substance by using a universal pH level indicator or a pH meter.
Acid + Alkali = Salt + Water
When an acid reacts with an alkali they neutralize and form a type of salt and water. To extract the salt you'll need to distill the water. Example : potassium hydroxide + sulfuric acid = potassium sulfate + water. If a carbonate reacts with an acid the products are water, salt and carbon dioxide. Example : calcium carbonate + nitric acid = calcium nitrate + water + carbon dioxide.
- Acid + Alkali = Salt + Water
- Acid + Carbonate = Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide
This are the general equations for a neutralization reaction.
Examples of Salt
Potassium Hydroxide + Hydrochloric acid = Potassium Chloride
Calcium Hydroxide + Sulfuric acid = Calcium Sulfate
Zinc Hydroxide + Nitric acid = Zinc Nitrate