ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

America, A Nation Blessed by God? Part Two

Updated on September 30, 2012
Abitibibob profile image

Bob Hunter worked for Ontario Hydro for 22 years. He later became a researcher/writer for the Christian Research Institute in California.

Inuit Indian
Inuit Indian | Source
Martin Frobisher
Martin Frobisher | Source

The Inuit Indians

Contrary to the thinking of many in this country, the United States wasn’t the only place being explored by the Europeans. Baffin Island was home to the Inuit Indians. They are usually thought of as Eskimos. In the Summer of 1576 English sailor Martin Frobisher led an expedition in search of a northern route to the Orient. When he reached what is now called Frobisher Straits he was greeted by several Inuit who offered them fish, seal skin clothing and friendship.

Frobisher thought the straits would lead to the Pacific Ocean. One Inuit offered to guide them though the straits. Five men were sent out to row to the Inuit’s kayak but to not row out of sight of Frobisher’s ship. The sailors disobeyed orders and Frobisher wrongly concluded that they had been taken captive. Frobisher promptly kidnapped an Inuit and headed back to England. Unfortunately, the Indian died on the way.

Frobisher returned the following July of 1577. On July 31st one of his ships landed 150 miles from where his men had disappeared a year before. They found an Inuit summer camp containing European-made clothing. Concluding that they were the clothing of the missing sailors Frobisher sent out forty soldiers, who surprised eighteen Inuit men, women and children. Frobisher’s men began shooting them. Some escaped but a man, woman and child were captured. Again, Frobisher headed back to England with them, but they all died of disease.

Frobisher returned in the spring of 1578 but the Inuit wisely refused all contact with him. The English never found out what happened to the missing men, but for years the Inuit would tell of the five men he abandoned. It was said that they lived peacefully among them until one spring when they left with a boat and a map, never to be seen again.

Captain John  Smith
Captain John Smith | Source

The Powhatan Confederacy

In 1600 the East Coast of the United States was home to over a hundred Indian nations. Among them was a union of thirty small nations, united to form the powerful Powhatan Confederacy (Algonquin Indians), led by a man named Wahunsunacawh.

In 1607 a soldier of fortune by the name of John Smith arrived in Jamestown. He hoped to set up the first successful English colony in North America. Wahunsunacawh could have destroyed the settlement but he was aware of the power of European weapons. He thought it might be beneficial to have some of those weapons and tools for the Confederacy.

The death toll was high among the colonists that winter and they began raiding Powhatan towns and taking food. Wahunsunacawh captured John Smith and they met in a room along with Wahunsunacawh’s daughter Pocahontas. Wahunsunacawh may have formed an alliance with Smith by proclaiming him the leader of the Powhatan’s newest settlement, Jamestown. Smith, in turn, tried to make Wahunsunacawh king of the Powhatans. In British eyes this would have made him subject to the king of England. Wahunsunacawh, however, didn’t recognize this fact.

It is safe to say that the stories of Pocahontas saving John Smith’s life have been greatly exaggerated. Smith’s own journals, written immediately after the incident, say nothing about his life being threatened. It wasn’t until seventeen years later, when he wrote his memoirs that he mentioned that story. He also claimed to have been saved by women on three separate occasions.

Because the English were forced to pay extremely high prices in copper and trade goods in order to obtain food, in January of 1609 Smith and the military kidnapped Wahunsunacawh’s brother, Opechancanough. The soldiers plundered the stores and then demanded more.

The English took what they wanted, including land. The inevitable result was war, lasting from 1609 to 1613. In April of 1613 Pocahontas was kidnapped for the ransom of all English prisoners of war. The Indians complied and released the prisoners. However, the English refused to release Pocahontas. She was indoctrinated with English customs and in Christianity. She declared that she had fallen in love with John Rolfe. Wahunsunacawh agreed to a truce. Pocahontas was baptized Lady Rebecca and she married John Rolfe. A couple of years later they, along with their baby son, sailed to England. There she was billed as the “Right Thinking Savage.” While preparing to sail to Jamestown to visit her father, Pocahontas became sick and died in March of 1617, at the age of 22.

Heartbroken at the loss of his daughter and at the continuing loss of land to the English, Wahunsunacawh gave up his power and died the following year. He was succeeded by his brother Opechancanough.

It was about this time that the smoking of tobacco was taking hold in England and tobacco from Virginia was in high demand. This necessitated that more land become available for the tobacco fields. Again, greed took over, this time in the form of a land grab! Opechancanough spent the next quarter of a century leading the Indians in a war for their land. By 1645 the battle had been lost. Opechancanough, who was now 90 years old, was captured and shot in the back by an English guard. It wasn’t possible to eliminate the Powhatans completely, and descendants of these two leaders still live today.

Click to Continue


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)