ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Artificial Intelligence- Robo Scientist

Updated on September 18, 2014

Robots Can "Reason"

Scientists have created a robot that performs hundreds of repetitive experiments. The robot, called Adam, is the first machine to have independently "discovered new scientific knowledge".
Scientists have created a robot that performs hundreds of repetitive experiments. The robot, called Adam, is the first machine to have independently "discovered new scientific knowledge".
 Weighing only 60 milligrams, with a wingspan of three centimeters, robo-flys tiny movements are modeled on those of a real fly. While much work remains to be done on the mechanical insect, the Harvard researchers say that such small flying machines
Weighing only 60 milligrams, with a wingspan of three centimeters, robo-flys tiny movements are modeled on those of a real fly. While much work remains to be done on the mechanical insect, the Harvard researchers say that such small flying machines | Source

Artificial Intelligence is the New Frontier

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Artificial Intelligence is the new frontier. It is no longer a question if a robot scientist can actually perform as a human scientist. A robot can now be controlled by human thought alone as reported in “Scientific American.” Scientists at Aberystwyth University in Wales and the U.K's University of Cambridge designed Adam to take a more human approach to scientific inquiry in a process that does not need human inputs.

Using Artificial Intelligence

By reasoning and robotic hardware, Adam, a robot scientist discovered three genes that encode specific yeast enzymes, a determination human scientist had not been able to make.

Automated Discovery Process

It is now possible to automate scientific discovery. This does not mean automating experiments. It is possible to build a machine—a robot scientist—that can discover new scientific knowledge.

The journal Science, noted the computer robot named Adam autonomously hypothesized (forms a “guess”) that certain genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae code for enzymes that catalyze some of the microorganism's biochemical reactions. This is the first step in the scientific problem-solving process.

Adam is not a humanoid. It is a complex automated computer lab. Adam after developing a hypothesis, it develops its own experiments, noting the results. It can initiate about 1,000 strain-media experiments a day without human input.

Ross King, a professor of computer science who led the research at Aberystwyth University, stated, "This is one of the first systems to get (artificial intelligence) to try and control laboratory automation.”

Adam has been programmed with extensive background knowledge. The claim that Adam holds background “knowledge,” rather than information triggers a philosophical debate. Adam uses “knowledge” to reason and guide its interactions with the physical world.

Scientist follows the scientific method by forming hypotheses and then experimentally test the deductive consequences of those hypotheses.

Adam has been programed to follow the “Occam’s razor” – that all else being equal, a simpler hypothesis is more probable than a complex one.

The Future is Here

An example is the Global Hawk that is a robotic plane which can fly autonomously can fly at altitudes above 60,000 feet (18.3 kilometers) — roughly twice as high as a commercial airliner — and as far as 11,000 nautical miles (20,000 kilometers) — half the circumference of Earth.

Already the US government has invested billions to automate warfare: artificial intelligence that can weigh the options and implement self-determined actions. The US Army and Navy have both hired experts in the ethics of building machines to prevent the creation of an amoral Terminator-style killing machine that murders indiscriminately. The concern is whose “morals” will be used? Whose “values” are to be implemented?

Colin Allen, a scientific philosopher at Indiana University's has just published a book summarizing his views entitled Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong.

Whose is to Decide What is Right and Wrong?

Ronald Arkin, a computer scientist at Georgia Tech university, who is working on software for the US Army has written a report which concludes robots, while not "perfectly ethical in the battlefield" can "perform more ethically than human soldiers."

Researchers are now working on "soldier bots" which would be able to identify targets, weapons and distinguish between enemy forces like tanks or armed men and soft targets like ambulances or civilians.

Noel Sharkey, a computer scientist at Sheffield University says, “"It sends a cold shiver down my spine. I have worked in artificial intelligence for decades, and the idea of a robot making decisions about human termination is terrifying."

Related Article:

http://hubpages.com/hub/Artificial-Intelligence-Revolution-Smarter-Than-Humans


Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • dallas93444 profile imageAUTHOR

      Dallas W Thompson 

      7 years ago from Bakersfield, CA

      You would enjoy my new book! www.eyeswideshutanenigma.com

      Robots are ubiquitos... They are everywhere!

    • Darlene Sabella profile image

      Darlene Sabella 

      7 years ago from Hello, my name is Toast and Jam, I live in the forest with my dog named Sam ...

      Hello again my smart friend, yes this is the novels my dad would read about the strange events of make up sience fiction. It's here, however we have been hearing about Robots now for last decade, yet I have yet to see them...except from you awesome hub rate up peace & love darski

    • dallas93444 profile imageAUTHOR

      Dallas W Thompson 

      7 years ago from Bakersfield, CA

      msorensson,

      I would agree... However, the unintended consequences are unlimited. Our quest for knowledge in my opinion is good. Our warfare and other country's warefare capabilities have increased exponentially. History clearly indicates a dance between technology and its applications: both good and "bad" that creates opportunities for those who choose either path.

      Our "dualistic" perspective is an on-going process.... We get to decide what is good, or bad.

    • msorensson profile image

      msorensson 

      7 years ago

      Wow...my son was telling me about that plane...Global Hawk. but he did not tell me the name.

      The evolution of humanity requires that we go through this phase, so we go along with it. No right or wrong. Just as it is.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)