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Aztec Calendar Stone: Symbols and Meanings
The monolith was carved in the Mesoamerican Postclassic Period, between the years 1250 and 1521 d.C.
It is believed that the stone was in place until 1521, during the reign of Moctezuma, until in the mandate of Hernan Cortes who ordered to remove all pagan idols.
In 1964 she was transferred to the National Museum of Anthropology and History of Mexico City, in the "Mexica Room" of the museum.
On the other hand, the Mexican Rebecca Barrera, the Aztec Calendar is no more than a symbol of the end of an era and the beginning of the Fifth Sun, which would occur with the arrival of Quetzalcoatl: "The stone would therefore be a kind of prophecy Stone that predicted the end of the Mexica world, which finally happened with the arrival of the Spaniards. "For her, the stone is a commemorative that captures the conception of time and the worldview of the Mexica Empire..
Material: Olivine Basalt
Size: 3.60 meters in diameter, 1.22 meters thick, 20 cm1 edge
Weight: 24 590 kg2
In the center of the monolith is the face of the solar god Tonatiuh11 within the glyph "movement" (Ollin), with his two hands and holding a human heart in each of them.
In the center of the sculpture are two claws of eagle with a circle below and another one up adding four, which is the "4-Ollin" which identifies the Fifth Sun.
The four ages
The four squares surrounding the central deity represent the previous four suns that preceded the present Quinto Sol.
• In the upper right square is represented the "4 Jaguar", which lasted 676 years.
• On your left is "4 Wind" that lasts 364 years.
• Under it, "4 Rain". This world lasted 312 years.
• In the lower right square is "4 Water", anteroom of our world, which lasted 676 years.
In addition the central disc contains the signs of the cardinal points placed between the signs of the Ages: the North (1 Flint); South (1 Rain); East (Xiuhuitzolli) and West (7 Monkey).
The next crown is the pictograms of the twenty baptized days of the sacred Aztec calendar, "Tonalpohualli" counterclockwise. These twenty days represent each month and were combined with thirteen numbers until a sacred year of two hundred and sixty days was formed.
These are: Cipactli (caiman), Ehecatl (wind), Calli (house), Cuetzpallin (lizard), Cóatl (serpent), Miquiztli (skull), Mazatl (wind), Tochtli, Atl (water), Itzcuintli Dog), Ozomatli (monkey), Malinalli (grass), Acatl (ocelot), Cuauhtli (eagle), Cozcaquauhtli (buzzard), Ollin (earthquake), Tecpátl (flint knife), Quiahuitl Xochitl (flower).
The second crown contains several square sections, in each section containing five points are believed to be represented the weeks of five days.
At the lower end of the stone, the jaws of two Xiuhcoatl (fire snakes) are opened, surrounding and framing the stone and carrying the god through the firmament, facing each other.
Aztec calendar crafts
© 2017 Guillermo Perez Guillen