ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel


Updated on May 15, 2012

India has nearly 500 species of mammals, 2000 birds and 40,000 insects. This is apart from the reptiles and fishes found in various parts of the country. The weather patterns range from the extreme cold of the Himalayan belt, wet spells in western and northeastern mountainous terrain to the torrid heat of the Thar Desert. This wide biodiversity would not have been possible had the Himalayan mountain range not existed. In its absence, the cold winds of Siberia would sweep through the subcontinent, making India a totally different place. This hub focuses upon the fauna of India, more specifically birds and mammals that have many unique characteristics.


India has about 20 of the 27 orders of avifauna of the world. There are about 1700 species, which are resident of India, some of which are found everywhere and others in select spots.

Point Calimere inTamilnadu, Chilka lake in Orissa (now Odisha) and Nalsarovirin in Gujarat are places were waterfowls congregate in large numbers. In places like Great And Little Rann of Kutch we find Flamingos and for storks, egrets or Herons the best place to find them is Ranganathittu (near Mysore) and Vedanthangal (Tamil nadu).

Game birds with beautiful colors, like Black patridge (Francolinus franclinus), Monal pheasants (Lophophorous impejanus), painted grouse (pteroceles indicus) can be found in plenty, and some like the Indian roller having exotic metallic and pastel colors. Among exotic birds, it is the peacock (Pavo critatus), which holds the pride of the place. It is so closely intertwined with Indian folklore and mythology that it has been declared the national bird of India. Its colorful tail feathers, metallic blue neck and graceful gait add to its elegance. Another indigenous bird of exotic variety is the Great Indian Bustard (Choriotis nigriceps)

The common birds of prey are Hawk eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) crested serpent eagle (spilornis cheela) Tawny eagle (Aquila ropax) Bonelli’s eagle (Hieraaetus faciatus) marsh harrier (circus aeruginosus) and lagger falcon (falco jugger)


During various seasons, there are large number of winged visitors from abroad who leave their homes during the long and intense winter. Some of the most common ones are White Stork, which normally breeds in Central Europe and West Asia and fly nearly 6000 miles to India during September. By the end of April they return home.It is usually seen in the marshlands of Northern and Central India.

Another winged visitor is Rosy Pastor. Seen mostly in Eastern Europe, this bird migrates to India in August and is usually found in the North West and the Deccan plateau. It returns home by the middle of April.

Brown headed Gull found mostly in Central Asia and Tibet arrives in India by September and returns by April. Its common habitat in India is Western and Eastern seacoasts.

The Spotted Sandpiper which is a native of Europe and Norther Asia migrates to India In September and returns by April. It is found throughout India near Island waters and paddy fields.


Rapid devlopment and depletion of natural habitats have resulted in many birds being on the verge of extinction. One bird which has been saved is the Great Indian Bustard,but there which are in the endangered list

For example the fast vanishing wetlands in and around Guwahati has posed a major threat to the survival of Greater Adjutant Stork. Guwahati, incidentally has the largest concentration of these birds in the world

The population of White winged wood duckCairina scutulata’ which is mainly found in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh is also declining and this is largely attributed to the destruction, degradation and disturbance of riverine habitats


No write-up on Indian birds would be complete without mentioning the contributions of Salim Ali (1896-1987) whose works contributed immensely to the development of Ornithology in India. In his autobiography “The fall of a Sparrow” he describes how shooting down of a yellow throated sparrow with his toy gun led him to ornithology and his life long love with that subject. He was a prolific writer and contributed to THE JOURNAL OF BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY and his magnum opus the ten volume HANDBOOK OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA AND PAKISTAN. Some of the few other ones are A PICTORIAL GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF THE INDIAN SUB-CONTINENT, ABOUT INDIAN BIRDS, FIELD GUIDES TO THE BIRDS OF NORTH EASTERN HIMALAYAS, THE BOOK OF INDIAN BIRDS etc. In his honor the former City Forest National Park in Jammu and Kashmir has been renamed as SALIM ALI NATIONAL PARK


Submit a Comment

  • ram_m profile imageAUTHOR


    6 years ago from India

    Thank you MountainBlossom, I'm very happy to know the info was useful

  • Mountain Blossoms profile image

    Marianne Kellow 

    6 years ago from SE Thailand

    An excellent read, thank you. I really enjoy your hubs very much, they are so informative and make me want to study the subjects more. MB


This website uses cookies

As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

Show Details
HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)