- Education and Science»
- Astronomy & Space Exploration
Black Hole Explored 2 - Gravity and Radiowaves
How to black hole radiations?
I recently read in a book by Stephen Hawking that inside a black hole, the gravitational field is so strong that a when a virtual particle (that is the antiparticle in the pair) is sucked inside it, it can come out in the form a real particle and escape to infinity. How is that possible? How can something sucked into a black hole escape from it if the curvature around a black hole is considered to be infinite? How can that particle have that much energy? and this theory has been cross checked by many other scientists and they found it consistent. How?
Here is my idea on how it is possible
You can use a classical (i.e. low scale/energy density) model of AWT to understand it easily. By AWT, the gravitational field of black hole is behaving like density gradient of environment similar to the surface of water droplet. Such surface reflects most of energy from inside back again due the total reflection phenomena.
The total reflection works only if the wavelength of incoming light remains smaller than the diameter of reflecting surface from this the lower limit of Hawking radiation follows (every black hole emanates the weak light, whose wavelength corresponds the diameter of black hole.
At microscopic level, you can think, the surface of black hole is behaving like mirror-like surface, which is reflecting energy back into black hole. But such surface is never completely flat due the quantum fluctuations forming the vacuum. These fluctuations are virtually "scratching" the event horizon, thus changing black hole into a "fuzzball". Such scratched rough surface is passing part of energy through it in both directions, so that the condition of total reflection is violated. The same thing occurs even at water surface, because the water surface gradient is never completely sharp and flat, being scratched by density fluctuations of water molecules resulting from Brownian noise. The event horizon of black hole is such gradient too, just in much larger scale.
For example, during fall of massive objects into BH the event horizon is "scratched" heavily, so that the internal energy of black hole can pass through it in giant flash of gamma ray radiation. Because the gravity field gradient or rotating black hole is larger at poles of black hole (where it isn't compensated by centripetal force), Hawking condition is violated at poles for small/hot black holes, where the energy penetrates the event horizon from inside in pair of polar jets, but now you might be wondering how is the energy reflected out? Read below...
You should think, black hole is huge hot star, formed by neutrinos and gravitons. Such star could radiate its energy fast, but the mass density gradient of vacuum is very high above the surface of black hole too. Every density gradient reflects the waves of energy, so just a subtle portion of energy can pass through. This portion is called the Hawking radiation.
But it has no meaning to explain you the behavior of non-classical objects, like black holes by using classical physics phenomena, if you don't know about classical physics as well. You cannot understand the meaning by analogies, if you don't know anything from physics. It like explanation of Sun by hot sphere concept, until you know, what the "sphere" and "hot" really means.
This is the main problem of people in understanding of Aether theory, which is classical physics theory. Even the best physical theorists know the classical physics superficially, so they cannot reveal any new connections in it, the layman the less.
It's analogous to observation of clouds. Every small piece of foggy atmosphere appears quite transparent. To reveal fog, you should consider a large amount of air particles. To reveal shapes of this fog, i.e. the clouds, you should consider even much larger amount of air particles. Without it, you'll see no new shapes inside of fog fluctuations.
To develop fundamentally new theories, you should simply know the existing theories perfectly. To understand new connections, you should have a broad knowledge. The development of new ideas is emergent phenomena, only sufficiently large system of fluctuations/particle can shape the energy and information spreading up to level, a new piece of reality emerges. This is because the surface curvature of particles compensates mutually, so just a very subtle portion remains. You should consider a large number of connections to reveal new connections.