ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Blood Groups and Importance of Blood Donation

Updated on July 9, 2015

Life Saving Donation

Did you ever receive an sms on your / your dads mobile appealing for a particular blood group for any patient? Do you think you can donate your blood to anyone who is in need? You might have seen blood being given to accident Victims and to patients during or after surgery. You might have also seen voluntary organisations organising blood donation campaigns.
Donating blood saves a life. Basing on the matching of recipients and donors blood group blood transfusion is done. Lets learn more about this life saving donation. Make a habit to donate blood.
In the year 1900, Karl Landsteiner discovered different blood groups in human blood, when he was conducting experiments of mixing one sample with the other. He found that blood clumps are formed during mixing of some samples and were not formed during mixing of some samples. Formation of clumps of RBC is called Agglutination (antigen - antibody reaction between R.B.C and plasma) 2 Antigens are present on the membranes of RBC and 2 antibodies in the Plasma.

Antigen A - antibody A (anti A)
Antigen B - antibody B (anti B)
If agglutination takes place, it becomes fatal for the recipient.
Based on the presence or absence of antigens and antibodies, human beings are Classified into four groups called A, B, AB and O.

  • A group persons contain antigen A and antibody B
  • B group persons contain antigen B and antibody A.
  • AB group persons contain both antigen A and B, but no antibody.
  • O group persons contain no antigen, but both antibodies A and B are present.

In blood transfusion (transfer of blood from one person, donor to another recipient), the ABO grouping should be tested. If the donor receives a wrong blood group, agglutination of blood occurs in the body of the recipient and this leads to his death.
ABO grouping is shown below.

  • The antibodies of the donor has no effect as it is diluted before transfusion.
  • The antibodies of the recipient must be consideral
  • O blood group people are called universal Donors.
  • AB blood group people are called universal Recipients.
  • Karl Landsteiner in 1900, identified three types of blood groups A, B and AB.
  • In 1902, Castells identified another group called 'O' group.
  • Blood groups are genetically inheritable and are examples for multiple allelism.

So, in Brief:

Blood Group-'A': People having blood group 'A' will have antigen 'A' on their red blood cells and antibody 'b' in their plasma, and these people should be transfused with blood belonging to blood group 'A' or 'O'.
Blood Group 'B': People having blood group 'B' will have antigen 'B' and antibody 'a' and they should be transfused with blood group 'B' or 'O'.
Blood Group 'AB': People having blood group 'AB' will have both antigen 'A' and 'B'. They do not have antibodies. They can receive blood belonging to blood groups A, B, AB and O, so they are called "universal recipients".

Blood Group 'O': people having blood group 'O' will not have both antigen 'A' and antigen 'B'. They have both the antibodies and they can donate blood to all the other groups, so they are called "universal donors".

Rh- factors:

  • Rhesus factor (Rh factor) was first observed by Landsteiner and weiner (1940) in Rhesus monkey.
  • This is a type of antigen.
  • People having Rh factor are Rh+ and those not having are Rh- (negative)
  • Rh+ and Rh- are incompatible. They cannot mix, if they mix, it result in agglutination of RBC leading to death.
  • Subsequent injection of Rh+ to Rh- person leads to the production of antibodies and to immediate death.
  • A paediatric complaint where the dead child is born is due to production of antibodies in mother against the +ve antigens of the child.
  • Necessity of Blood Transfusion:

    • In the cases of blood loss in accidents.
    • Rupture in the internal organs.
    • Severe burns of the body or severe anaemia.
    • During or after surgical operations.

How is blood transfusion done?

  • The blood group of the patient is determined by test.
  • Suitable blood group which matches the blood of the patient is obtained.
  • The obtained blood is transfused to the patient through a large vein, Usually Present near the elbow.

Who can denoe bolld:

  • A healthy person between 16 - 60 years of age.
  • One can donate blood once in 3 to 4 months period.

Who cannot donate blood?

  • Persons having infectious diseases.
  • Persons suffering from hepatitis, leukaemia, AIDs etc.

Storage of blood:

  • Collected blood is stored under sterile conditions in blood banks.
  • It is prevented from clotting by adding sodium citrate or heparin.
  • It can be stored for 3 weeks. If not used during that period, it is discarded.

Experiments with plastic:

  • The scientists of shefield university, Britain are near the gate of Victory in preparing ready made Plastic blood.
  • This blood is red, thick like honey.
  • The molecules of 'Poly ethylene Glycol' are used to prepare this blood which is a plastic haemoglobin.
  • If this experiment succeeds, there will not be any lack of blood in the time of need.

Why is O-negative blood so important?


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image


      4 years ago

      I have Rh negative blood. I had to have the shots after each pregnancy. My Grandmother had Rh negative also and Grandfather had Rh +. They had 19 pregnancies with a double uterus. She was pregnant several times on both sides of the uterus. She lost 10 of the babies. It was not until she was 38 and had a hysterectomy that they found that she had the uterus didelphys. That explained the pregnancies and the early loss. I will add that information on my next story on my Grandmother and Grandfather. I am going to enjoy your Hubs! You have great subjects and well done! Nice to meet you and thank you for following you on HubPages.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)