ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

British Colonial Rule in India

Updated on April 9, 2013

Colonialism was the concept developed by Karl Marx. The Marxist historians continued the concept subsequently. They mainly focused on the exploitation of Eastern Nations by the Western. According to them, colonial policies changed from time to time. It was always based on the economic interests of the Europeans. This concept was discussed in the following three phases; Mercantile Capitalism, Industrial Capitalism and Finance Capitalism.

R.P.Dutt, a Marxist historian from India wrote the book, 'India Today'. He studied and analyzed the British Exploitation of India and put forth the same in three phases of colonialism. According to him; the three phases in India were as follows;

  • Mercantile Capitalism; 1757 to 1813
  • Industrial Capitalism; 1813 to 1858
  • Finance Capitalism; 1858 to 1947

Mercantile Capitalism

It was from 1757 – 1813. In this phase, open plunder of India was carried by the British. Other Europeans were eliminated from the competition and British have enjoyed the monopoly. From 1600 to 1760, British carried the trade in putting out system. In here advances were given to the artisans to meet the raw materials. Further, the finished goods must be sold to the British company only. The company use to purchase the goods at lower costs.

The above policy was later changed as the Factory system came into being. The place of production was changed subsequently. British started purchasing only raw materials. Indian peasants were forced to grow Indigo at Bihar and Bengal. Finished goods were sold in India and in order to create and promote British market, policy of De-industrialization was initiated by the English in India.

Further, Dastak system was misused. Revenue administration was controlled. Huge amounts were collected after wars from the natives by concluding treaties.

Industrial Capitalism

This was also called as Free Trade Stage. This phase was from 1813 to 1858. In this stage the monopoly of the East India Company to trade in India was abolished. Free trade was allowed in 1813 to every company from England.

Industrial Revolution at this time was expanding in England. The capitalist class that emerged at this time in England has got influence in the parliament; they have successfully ended the monopoly of East India Company trade in India. New form of exploitation was started with this. In consequences, India became the destination for 20% of production from England.

Bipan Chandra said; “Indian Handicrafts were exposed to the fierce and unequal competition of machine made goods of Britain and faced extinction”.

Karl Marx said; “British broke up the Indian Hand-looms and destroyed the spinning-loom and in-undated in very mother country of cottons with cotton”.

Dual Tariff policy was adopted by the British to carry on de-industrialization in India. High taxes on exports were imposed; it was 67.5% on clicot textiles, 37.5% on Muslin cloth and 300% on the Indian Sugar.

Finance Capitalism

This was from 1858 to 1947. By 1860, Industrial Revolution was spreaded to the other parts of Europe and it created troubles to the British Investment. Hence, British concentrated highly in India. Huge capital was invested in Non-Manufacturing sector. It was invested in the form of loans, they received huge interest out of which defense needs were met. Huge investment was put in transportation sector and railways was developed in India. To carry the raw materials and to enhance their markets the transportation was developed.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • tayyabjutt profile image

      tayyabjutt 

      5 years ago

      thanks dear

    • shai77 profile image

      Chen 

      5 years ago

      This is a fascinating topic and you present it well. I gave your hub a thumbs up and marked it interesting. Thanks for the information!

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)