ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Maharaj Chhatrapati Shivaji

Updated on January 23, 2013

Shivaji was one of the greatest personalities in Medieval India. At the age of 10, he inherited the Poona Jagir from his father. Shivaji teacher was Dabaji konddev. Somantha Ramadas was shivaji`s religious teacher.

Shivaji was very ambitious, he created a state for Marathas by bringing many tiny provinces of western India together. He began conquering territories of Bijapur Sultans. He was successful in his attempt and conquered Kolyan, Torana, Kondana, Javoli from the Bijapur Sultans. Afzal Khan of Bijapur was assassinated.

Further, Shivaji moved towards north, where Mughals were in power. In 1660, Ahmadnagar and Junna were plundered by Shivaji. Shayista Khan, the Mughal governor of this region fought against Shivaji. Poona was occupied by Shayista Khan and Shivaji was expelled. In 1663, Shivaji recaptured Poona from Mughals through guerrilla warfare.

In 1664, Surat was plundered by Shivaji. Mughals appointed Raja Jaisingh against Shivaji. In the year 1665, Shivaji was defeated. Shivaji escaped to Purandar fort. However, he surrendered later. A treaty was confirmed at Purandar fort with the following provisions;

  • Out of 35 forts of Marathas, 23 shall be surrendered to the Mughals.
  • Entire territory between Konkan and Bijapur would be given to the Marathas with the power to collect taxes. In return, Marathas were supposed to pay 40 lakh Huns (silver coins) to Mughals.
  • Shivaji`s son, Sambhaji shall join the Mughal Administration with 7000/7000 rank.
  • Shivaji shall visit the court of Mughal.

In 1666, Shivaji visited the court of Mughal and he felt humiliated. He was treated as 7000 mansabdhar. In this regard Shivaji revolted against the Mughals. In consequence, Shivaji was arrested by the Mughals and was sent to Agra Prison. Subsequently Shivaji escaped from there and later attacked Poona in 1666 and looted huge wealth.

In 1674, Shivaji got coroneted as King of Maratha Empire and took an imperial title Chhatrapati. He claimed the status of Kshatriyas. Since then he became a ruler. In 1680, Shivaji died.

Administration of Shivaji

Shivaji administrative system was highly centralized with King as the supreme power. The administrative was coupled with feudal feature too. Eight Council of ministers were appointed to assist the King. The role of the ministers was purely advisory. The following were the eight council of ministers;

  • Peshwa: Prime Minister and Finance Minister.
  • Amatya: Incharge of Accounts.
  • Mantri: Home Minister.
  • Sumant: Foreign Minister.
  • Sachiv: Incharge of Royal correspondence.
  • Senapati: Incharge of the Army.
  • Nyayadish: Judicial officer.
  • Panditarao: Head of religious department.

Important positions at provincial administration; provinces were called as Pranthas. Mukhya deshadhi kani was the head of Pranthas. Pranthas were divided into Taraf. Tarafdar was the head in here. Village was the smallest unit of administration and Patil was the in charge with regard to tax collection. Kulkarni was the accounts officer at village level.

Revenue Administration of Shivaji

Revenue Administration of Malik Amber was followed predominantly. Concept of Kathi was introduced to measure the land. Land revenue was 30 to 40%. Chanth and Sardeshmukh were the two important sources of revenue. They were introduced by Shivaji.

Chanth: It means quarter. The rate of tax is was 25%. It was collected from the people outside the territory. Some scholars viewed this tax as a payment to protect these territories from others. Modern Historians believed and analyzed that this tax was collected to get protection from depredations of Marathas.

Sardeshmukh: It was the tax payable by peasants. It was 10%, payable by both the peasants inside the territory and outside.

Military Administration of Shivaji

Bargis and Silhadars were the two types of troops maintained by the state.

Bargis: They were regular troops. The state recruits the bargis regularly.

Silhadars: They were temporary troops. Lump sum amount was paid to them for their services. They have to carry their own arms. Pindaris, a bandit community was also a part of Silhaars.

Kolahabad was the navy station of the Marathas. This port was used to attack the rivals like Siddis and Jangira who inhabit in the small islands near to Mumbai.

Marathas always followed Guerrilla warfare methods. In 1761, first time Marathas fought a pitch battle and it was with Afghans. It was the third battle of Panipat.

Marathas maintained the Artillery. They were instructed not to attack civilians, women, scripture and places of worship and agricultural lands too.

Welfare measures of Shivaji

Shivaji was a great reformer. He banned many social evils prevailed in the society. He abolished Sati (burning of the widow wife of the deceased husband), dowry system, child marriages and forceful marriages. He legalized the widow re-marriages. He took up many infrastructure development activities also.


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image

      Aamar jirobe 

      2 years ago

      Jai shivaji jai bhavani


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)