Development of Indian National Movement
The growth and development of Indian national movement considered as a great movement against colonial power in the World. The imperialist policies of British led to the growth of Indian national movement and the Revolt of 1857 with the influence of Indian freedom struggle leaders, newspapers, magazines etc. Anyway Indian national movement showed the unity mind of Indians and the need of freedom. Indian national movement was a great phenomenon in the history, because it was characterized with unity of diversified Indians irrespective of their religion, caste, region etc.
There were many factors led to the growth and development of Indian national movement like social factors, religions factors, economic factors, political factors, historical factors etc. Some of them are briefly described as below.
Factors of the Growth and Development of Indian National Movement
Following are the major factors of raising of national movement in India.
I – Impact of British Rule
British introduced different kinds of revenue, economic, political policies and socio – religious reforms in India to setup their domination in India. Almost all the policies and reforms of British were imperialistic in nature. These policies implemented by British entirely changed India’s old peaceful conditions. They introduced many policies to drain the wealth of India to their home country. Finally, Indians recognized the agenda behind the British. So, different policies introduced by British resulted in the growth and development of Indian national movement.
II – Development of Transport and Communication
Another factor influenced to the growth and development of nationalism among Indians was the development of transport and communication. Actually the British authority introduced transport system like railways, bridges etc. and communication system like postal services in India for the purpose of spreading of British army power, food supply, trading activities etc. They introduced it not for the development of Indian. But the transport and communication played a vital role in the growth and development of nationalism in India.
Indian used the communication system introduced by British and which enabled to spread more information about the imperialistic nature of British rule. Anyway the development in transport and communication enhanced the national movement of India.
III – Introduction of English Education
The introduction of modern education by the British played a strategic role in the development of nationalism in India. It enabled some Indians to visit England for higher education. They began to get more aware of the need for freedom and the raising trends in democracy in the world. So, the introduction of modern education played a decisive role in the growth and development of Indian national movement.
IV – Printing Presses
The Europeans introduced many advanced technologies in India. The introduction of printing press technology was one of them. There were numbers of vernacular or local news papers circulated throughout the country. And also there existed many journals and magazines etc. These local presses influenced Indian national movement by spreading of information about the British imperialistic policies. It also helped to spread nationalism among Indians.
V – Historical Factors
Another one was the historical factors which led to the growth and development of Indian national movement. Indians were come to get more aware of the richest past heritage of India. The past land areas of India covered a large portion of Asia including modern Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan etc. And also Indian culture, artisans, products etc. were very much attracted by other countries. Indian mythology like Mahabharata is telling the richest culture of India. So, Indian understood the old and golden culture and its heritage. It also led to create a mind against the European powers and their imperialistic policies.
VI – Social–Religious Reforms
During the period of colonial rule of India, there existed mainly two religions, Islam, Hinduism. Even the people were followed in different faith they were lived together with love, brotherhood, sympathy etc. But the British promoted Christianity with the influence of Christian Missionaries. Along with their reforms, they tried to change the customs, rituals and beliefs practiced by the people. So, it created anti minded Indians against British. In fact it was one of the reasons led to the outbreak of national movement in India.
VII – Racial Discrimination
Europeans came in India as foreigners and captured India for fulfilling their own demand. Even they came in India as foreigners they also ruled as foreigners. They thought that, they are superior to Indians in all respects. They saw Indians with different eyes, and they kept a wide disparity with Indians. Anyway Indians thought that, why we ruled under foreigners. The inferiority thought of British about Indians created the need of freedom for the country. Racial discrimination or color discrimination was also one of the reason boosted the nationalism in India.
VIII – Drain of Indian Economy
When Europeans arrived in India, Indian regions were very richest in all respects, especially its financial system. All the regions attained self sufficiency for their own demands. As a part of economic and revenue policy of British, it resulted to the changing of the entire condition of Indian regions. They focused only to exploit India and by boost industrialization in their home country. In short they squeezed Indian wealth for satisfying their own wants. The famous theory of Dadabai Navaroji “Drain Theory” reported about this secret behind British. It boosted nationalization movement.
IX – Viceroy: Lord Litton’s Policy
Lord Litton was the Viceroy of India (1876–80). During his period the condition of India was very bad. It was the time of great famine. Actually famine was the aftereffect of British policies. Even the condition of India was very pathetic Viceroy Lord Litton continued imperialistic policies. His policies or reforms like Vernacular Press Act, Royal Titles Act, and Indian Arms Act etc. were not in favorable to India and its people but was imperialistic in nature. So, the reforms of Viceroy Lord Litton increased the unity of Indians against colonialism.
X – Illbert Bill Controversy
Illbert Bill passed by Sir. C.P Illbert, under the Viceroy of Lord Rippon aimed to develop Indians in the judiciary system. But it was altered after controversy among British. When the ‘Illbert Bill’ passed, some of British thought that, if an Indian can judge a British citizen it is not good for them, because they highly believed in racial discrimination. The amendment of the Bill again showed the bad thought of British towadrs Indians. So, the controversy of ‘Illbert Bill’ also led to strengthen the nationalist movement in India.
The growth and development of Indian nationalism was one of the greatest movements in the history against imperialistic rulers. The major reason for the raising of this phenomenon was the impact of the British rule. Britishers came in India as foreigners and ruled as foreigners. So, almost all of their policies and reforms were emphasized to drain Indian wealth and by using the resources to enrich their home country. Indian nationalist movement showed the entire angry towards colonial rulers.