Development of culture
The development of culture is a continuous process. Although culture develops trait by trait, a culture is actually a patterning interdependent trait complexes. The accumulated cultures are haded down from one generation to another on the one hand, new element from other cultures are introduced through accommodation, diffusion, contact etc., on the other, and culture progresses as a result of their unification. The existing developed cultures of any country is a result of these processes carried out over a period of hundred and thousands of years. In this development the rate of progress is net uniform. At times, it may be slow or study or in some times it is relatively fast. The progress in cultural growth does not takes place unless there are people with the required initiative. Otherwise, there will be no growth and the society may stagnate. Further, it may also be noted that for cultural development, men must become discontented with some of the many things as they are, and provided by their discontent, have been led to find a way out.
It is necessary to understand the following processes of cultural growth, in order to understand cultural growth properly.
It is the spread of cultural element from one society to another. The cultural elements are only addition to the earlier. For this spread there need not be continuous physical contact of the cultures questioned, but due to in direct contact also the cultures diffuse into other cultures.
The following features help in diffusion process.
- Competition withhold trends and their opposition.
- The desire and need for new traits.
- Contact and communication between the two cultures and
- Respect for those who invent new traits.
Acculturation: It involves culture change and development in a particular culture. It is due to continuous first hand contact with each other. The earlier cultural elements are substituted by the new cultures.
Transculturation: It involves the exchange of cultural item due to continuous first hand contact between two cultural items.
Enculturation: The process by which an individual learns the cultural elements of its society by observation and experiences.