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Ecological Classification of Plants

Updated on September 11, 2015
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I am a high school teacher in Mathematics & Science.I was appointed by GOVT of TS in INDIA. My qualifications are M.Sc.,B.Ed. My Exp:20years

Ecological Classification of Plants

Hydrophytes
Hydrophytes
Mesophytes
Mesophytes
Xerophytes
Xerophytes
Halophytes
Halophytes
Epiphytes
Epiphytes

Like a human being or an animal, a plant must adapt to its environment in order to survive. For their survival, plants compete with other plants for light, water, air and soil. The ability of plants to adjust with the environment is called adaptation. According to ecological classification, plants are categorized as follows.

Hydrophytes

Hydrophytes are those plants which live in water and adjust with their surroundings. They either remain fully dipped in the water like Hydrilla, Valisineria, etc. or most of their body parts remain under the water like trapa, lotus, etc. water lilies, sedges, crow foots are other important water plants. These hydrophytes travel long distances in the water, as the wind blows.

Mesophytes

The land plants which grow under normal conditions are called mesophytes. These plants grow on such places where the elimate is neither too dry nor too moist. The atmospheric temperature and relative humidity are also normal. Wheat, pea, tomato, mango, guava, etc. are examples of mesophytes. Their roots are tightly embedded in the soil. The leaves are large and broad and the stem is erect.

Xerophytes

These plants grow in deserts or in dry areas. They can survive even under long dry conditions. To fulil the water requirement, their roots become very long and the stems and leaves become thick and fleshy. The leaves of these plants get modified into spines to control the loss of water by transpiration. Various kinds of cacti, aloes, stone crops etc. belong to this category.

Halophytes

These plants grow in such places where the amount of mineral salts in the water is very high. The stem and leaves of these plants become thick and fleshy. Such plants sometimes bear respiratory roots which come out of the soil and perform breathing function. Rhizophora and Avicenna are example of such plants.

Epiphytes

These plants grow on other plants, on poles or on wires or they develop over the roofs of buildings. Epiphytes are mostly chlorophyllus and they prepare their own food. These plants get carbon dioxide and water from moist air. Their roots get water and nutrients form the dust deposited around them. Moss, fem, and orchid are example of these plants. Lentils, the creepers of a pumpkin plants, etc. come in this category.

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