Effective Discussion on How Teaching and Learning in Children Aged 2-15 Years Is Enhanced.
The articles provide significant information on the primary reason as to why the study of the Piaget’s theory is essential in the education sectors more so for the kids who are at the pre-secondary school level. The knowledge of the cognitive development would assist teachers in understanding the child’s stage of cognitive development in which they can introduce various learning concepts. From the articles, the authors agree that effective learning can only take place when educators understands the child’ cognitive stages of development (Ojose,2008; Simatwa, 2010). In light of this, the articles provide an in-depth discussion of the Piaget four stages of cognitive development and how they can be utilized in the enhancement of teaching and learning from the age of 2 years up to 15 years.
Stages of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 years)
The authors provide a lengthy discussion on the specific cognitive development that takes place when the kid is between zero and two years. From their information, they noted that the significant intellectual events that take place during this stage are the interaction between the senses and the environment. Notably, the child under this cognitive development stage has not fully developed a language for expressing his/her experience, but through the interaction with the environment, he/she can see and feel the happenings in his/her immediate environment (Ojose, 2008; Simatwa, 2010). Importantly, the articles point out at the object permanence and the visual pursuit that occurs during this stage. For instance, the kid can see and pursue the object that has been displaced. In essence, this stage marks the beginning of the intellectual development. Notably, the authors agree that educators of children should utilize this stage by providing children with necessary support that would allow them to develop their cognitive fully.
Preoperational Stage (2-7 years)
This stage is depicted by an increase in the language development, egocentric viewpoint, and limited logic. From the information presented by the articles, the child begins to engage in the problem-solving tasks. A point to note is that their limited logic becomes a hindrance to their problem-solving skills (Ojose, 2008; Simatwa, 2010). For example, the child during this stage would be able to put together unrelated events but lacks the understanding of the point-of-view, thereby is unable to reverse operations. Interestingly, both the authors provide a similar argument when it comes to the child’s view of the dimension of an object. They noted that at this stage, children only see one dimension of an object while ignoring other aspects. They further suggested that teachers should employ questioning technique as a strategy of determining the level of the cognitive development of the child (Ojose, 2008; Simatwa, 2010).
Concrete Operations Stage (7-11 years)
The articles provides an extensive discussion of the intellectual events that take place during the concrete operations stage. A point to note is that their information reveals that remarkable cognitive development takes place during this stage which enables the child to have a clear understanding of the activities that take place in his/her environment. Importantly, the authors affirm that significant cognitive development would permit the child not only to discern the environment but also to able to learn the essential skills that are applicable in reading, writing and solving the arithmetic problems (Ojose, 2008; Simatwa, 2010). Interestingly, at this stage the child’s senses allow him/her to have an understanding beyond one dimension. Importantly, their discussion also focusses on the need for the teachers to allow the children to have a considerate independence as such is healthy for their cognitive development. Besides, the articles also highlight that during this stage, the primary focus on the child is to know what is right, hence will face a challenge when faced with situations that are probabilistic (Ojose, 2008; Simatwa, 2010).
Formal Operations Stage (11-15 years)
The two authors provide a similar argument of the intellectual developments that take place during the formal operations stage. They argue that the stage mentioned above imparts the student with a well-developed logical, abstract and rational thinking. The articles go further to reveal that at this stage child can engage in reasoning by hypotheses which are majorly based on logic (Ojose, 2008; Simatwa, 2010). Interestingly, this stage provides them with the ability to formulate theories and at the same time be able to deduce their consequences without having any previous experience. Also, the authors reveal that students undergoing this stage can efficiently handle abstractions coupled with the ability to mentally explore the resemblances and distinctions because of their well-developed cognitive which provides them with a mastery of reversibility. Reasonably, since this is an explorative stage, teachers should not over control the learners but give them a reasonable level of independence, as such enables their cognitive to develop fully (Ojose, 2008; Simatwa, 2010). Apart from allowing them to be independent, teachers should also provide various learning concepts aimed at testing and accelerating students’ cognitive development.
The article focuses on the four stages of the cognitive development, the discussion narrowed down the application of the cognitive development in teaching mathematics concepts to children. Notably, the information would significantly assist the mathematics teachers with a better understanding of ways in which children study mathematical concepts, theories, and ideas. Notably, the article also focuses on how the application of the Piaget’s theory of cognitive development would positively impact the general teaching and learning process that takes place at the level of pre-secondary school. For instance, its pointed out that day-care centers should offer quality programs that enhance the child’s senses interaction with the environment.The above sentiment is an indication that the concept is relevant not only to mathematics teachers but to all educators who handle children that are undergoing the cognitive development.
Another important arguments that occurs occurs in the discussion on the concrete operations stage. Although its agree that during this stage the child indicates a remarkable cognitive development but differed on the necessary actions that teacher should employ. For instance, its argued that during this stage teachers should utilize it to impart children with mathematics concepts that would enable them to accurately clarify, infer, evaluate and apply the learned concepts in solving life problems. Conversely, there is a different approach to the utilization of this third stage of the cognitive development. According to this stage, teachers should take advantage of this stage in teaching the idea of fairness and morality to the child. They should be encouraged in knowing why an act is classified as right or wrong.
Apart from providing a summary of the Piaget four stages of development, the article further discuss the implication of the mentioned theory to the institutional management. Its noted that this theory has a positive impact on planning, curriculum development, evaluation, implementation and institutional administration in learning institutions. On the other hand, also the article also argues, that under the implication of the Piaget’s theory only addresses the criticisms that have been put forth towards the discussed theory. For instance, critics have argued that Piaget had failed to provide a complete description of a child’s cognitive development and also underrated the ability of young children during their stages of cognitive development.
Ojose, B. (2008). Applying Piaget's theory of cognitive development to mathematics instruction. The Mathematics Educator, 18(1).
Simatwa, E. M. (2010). Piaget's theory of intellectual development and its implication for instructional management at pre-secondary school level. Educational Research and Reviews, 5(7), 366.