ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Everything I needed to know for my AQA A2 Sociology Crime and Deviance (2011) Part 1/3 Theories of Social Study

Updated on November 1, 2011

My Completed Revision Notes from 2011

Theories of Social Society

Functionalsim

1. Durkheim

Society made of external social facts and organism analogy

Simple society (order achieved through mechanical solidarity i.e. moral rules and same norms and values because no division of labour) changes to complex society (organic solidarity i.e. large division of labour and specialist roles)


2. Parsons

Order maintained by moral commitment to rules

Problems with order/functional prerequisites-adaption (feed members), goal attainment (politics), integration (law, religion), pattern maintenance (socialisation e.g. family)

Moving equilibrium-changes on one social system affect another


3. Merton

Social institutions can have positive, negative or non-existent functions and have intended and unintended consequences

Functional autonomy-institutions aren’t interconnected but are independent units



Marxism

1. Marx

Dialectical materialism-economic conflicts

Capitalism reinforced by superstructure of institutions e.g. religion


2. Gramsci

Hegemony-the domination of ideas is as important as capitalism maintenance so people must want capitalism


3. Frankfurt School (Neo-Marxism)

Consumer Fetishism-people thinking buying fashionable goods creates happiness


4. Althusser

Revolution stopped physically (e.g. police) and through an ideological state (e.g. education)



Social Action Theory

1.Weber

Verstehn-empathetic understanding

Protestant work ethic was a major cause in the rise of capitalism

Types of action (human behaviour)-instrumental rational choice (two opposing goals weighed up), value instrumental (goals can’t be abandoned), traditional (just do because it’s tradition) and affective (done because of an unusual emotional state)

Rationalisation-action now governed by rational thought more, decreasing humanity


2.Symbolic Integrationists

Mead-humans not controlled by socialisation

-Different to animals because asses how to respond in situations, not automatically

-Humans interact with symbols (names), role-taking (First stage-play stage-mimic roles that aren’t our own to understand difference between us and them, Second stage-game stage-see collective viewpoint of others) and though the self (ability to see yourself from society’s perspective, becoming self-conscious)

-Self consists of I (spontaneous, selfish, uncensored) and me (internalises points of view, controls I)

-Have choice e.g. choose job, freedom in society, can join sub-cultures and don’t always act in social role

Blumer-rejects positivist methodology because can’t explain society as external forces that can be measured

-humans act on the meanings they give to objects and events and do not follow pre-set norms and values (they are created, modified, developed and changed within interaction) and can change their definition of situations (‘mechanisms of self-interaction’)


3.Labelling Theory

Labels are self-fulfilling prophecies, until the label becomes part of the individual’s self-concept


4.Phenomenologists

Subjective reasons for actions

Uses social constructionism research-nothing is a single type of act but occurs because of different motivation


5.Ethnomethodologists

Examines how people speak to each other in individual relationships and conversations




Structuration Theory


1.Giddens

Everyone constricted by structural factors e.g. age but also have some freedom to take action


2.Post-Structuralists

People forge own identities (e.g. by choosing products suggested by media) and are no longer see themselves in terms of gender etc.




Modernity

1. Post-Modernism

Nation-state (political unit) regulates capitalism and its conditions- ‘organised capitalism’

Globalisation has occurred because of changes in technology, the economy (e.g. trans-national companies), politics and culture and identity (mass media and the increased movement of people

Marxists agree but don’t see changes as break in past but as a new stage of capitalism

Baudrillard-society no longer based on goods production but on exchanging knowledge via images and signs/simulacra (e.g. articles about soap life-signs about signs)

-signs appear more real than reality but are meaningless

Too many versions of the truth to believe fully in one version-hyper reality


2. Late Modernity

The changes are not because of a new post-modernism era but the continuation of modernity

Traditions changing so have more freedom but there are more manufactures/man-made risks (e.g. nuclear war)

Can change risks so not predetermined like in post-modernity



Feminsim

1. Liberal/Reformist Feminists

Concerned with human and civil rights and freedoms of the individual

Sex-biological differences, gender-socialised roles (e.g. expressive instead of instrumental)

Believe inequality can be changed gradually, without reform


2. Radical Feminists

Universal patriarchy is the primary source of inequality and conflict

Strategies to reduce inequality-separatism (live apart from men), consciousness-raising (women- only groups were they share problems), political lesbianism (the only non-oppressive form of sexuality) catastrophe


3. Marxist Feminism

Gender inequality important for capitalism because they are a cheap/reserve army of labour, they reproduce the workforce and they absorb anger which should be directed at capitalism


4. Dual Systems Feminism

Combine Marxist and Radical Feminism (Hartmann)

There are two systems- economic (capitalism) and sex-gender (patriarchy) si it is looked at in the labour division and paid work


5. Difference Feminism

Feminism false universality because it’s not its only about the experiences of white, Western, heterosexual, middle-class women so they are essential because they say all women experience the same problems


6. Poststructuralist Feminism

Concerned with discourse and power/knowledge (Butler)

There is no fixed essence on what it is to be a woman because there are many different discourses (e.g. media, religion) which have different sorts of oppression



Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)