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Five Basic Elements of the World

Updated on June 28, 2010

EARTH, WATER, FIRE, AIR AND SPACE are five basic elements of the world. Vaasthushastra tells our body is also made up of these five elements. These are the fundamental elements giving life to all living beings when they are in balance. For eg. earth and water are very important to supply minerals and fertilizers to the growth of the plants. Similarly sun, the basic source of fire and co2 found in air are very essential for the phenomena of photosynthesis of plants. All human beings and other animals are mostly depending on plants to meet their food necessities. Almost it is clear that we are running our life with the support of these great elements. Let us now see the chemical and physical properties of these elements.



It is our home planet revolving round the sun and rotating it self has gravitational and magnetic forces. Our earth has a huge diameter of 12,800 Km and its overall density is 5.5 gm/cc. It is understood by our scientists as a huge magnet and the magnetic pole in the northern hemisphere is located on a peninsula in Northern Canada. The opposite magnetic pole in the southern hemisphere lies on the Antartica continent. Earth has four layers. They are earth crust, mantle, outer core, inner core.

Earth crust

It is the upper part of mantle and has thickness of about 8 km to 50 km. Upper part of this earth crust is composed of variety of soils like red soil, black soil, clay, loam and etc., and inner part of the crust is composed of dense rocks. It is also composed of various minerals and ores.


This is about 2,900 km thick and filled with hot semi solid molten rocks. The temperature of this zone is about 4000 degree centigrade.

Outer core

This is about 2,100 km thick and composed of liquid iron and other components. The total volume of inner core and outer core is equal to the volume of Mars.

Inner core

Inner core is very hot solid iron and has diameter of 2,500 km. Solid iron and ilquid iron found in both inner and outer cores of the earth is giving rise to it's over all density as 5.5 gm/cc.



About 71% of total surface of earth is covered by water. Out of which 95% of all the water is in the ocean and rest in gaciers and also as fresh water. Water is a common chemical substance that is essential to all living beings. Commonly water refers only liquid form, in solid form it is called as ice and in gaseous state it is called as water vapour, in cloud form it is called as condensate water vapour. The other names of water are aqua, hydrogen hydroxide and dihydrogen monoxide. The density of water in liquid form is 0.998 gm/cc and in solid form it is 0.92 gm/cc. The boiling point of water is directly related to barometric pressure. For example, on the top of Mount Everest it boils at 68 degree centigrade compared to 100 degree centigrade in sea level.



Fire is the heat and light energy released during a chemical reaction. Depending on the reactants and impurities within, the colour of the flame and the intensity of the fire will vary. Sun is the most vital source of light and fire. It is very difficult to imagine a world without sun. The temperature prevailing in the earth by sun shine is giving life to water, wind and all other living beings. Without sun we can not imagine blowing wind, flowing water, running river, falling cascades, waving seas and drinking water.


Air is the vital element for our survival. The air on the earth is various mixture of gases like Nitrogen 78.08%, Oxygen 20.94%, Argon 0.93%, Co2 0.03% and etc., It is also essential for plants ( Co2 ) to produce food in the presence of sun light. The density of air is 1.2 kg/cubic metre


Astronomically it is defined as the empty parts of the universe. This is the area out side the atmosphere of any celestial body. Obviously it is true that space is the thing where earth. water, fire and air are filled in.


Submit a Comment

  • ratnaveera profile image

    ratnaveera 5 years ago from Cumbum

    Dear watergreek, Thank you so much for reading this article and adding your valuable experience and comments.

  • watergeek profile image

    watergeek 5 years ago from Pasadena CA

    I love writing about water. Meanwhile, I use the sun as a charging station in the morning. It's like charging up your electric car (for those who have one). If you go outside in the early morning around 7:00 am and focus on the sun in a light meditation, you can feel it come in and electrically charge up your body. It's an amazing feeling. Thanks for this hub, ratnaveera. It's important information.

  • profile image

    msivaram 5 years ago


  • ratnaveera profile image

    ratnaveera 6 years ago from Cumbum

    Dear RK Sanga Thank you very much for visiting this Hub and your nice comments. You are absolutely right! Yet we everyone have to learn about many more things that happen inside our self and this great world.

  • RK Sangha profile image

    RK Sangha 6 years ago from USA

    I have also written an article Five Basic Elements on my website Here, the terms are taken as to comprehend the working of human body as well as the universe in a simple way. Not every body understands chemical terms and sometimes, the scientific terms fail to explain the phenomena existing between mind & body, man & god, spirituality etc. The reality of man and universe can never be explained by dissection; as the science wants to do. Here, the science has to look beyond the matter to see the life force acting within and outside the body. Thanks for a very good hub.

  • profile image

    Kryon poonam 7 years ago


    without air you cannot breathe


    Without water you cannot survive


    Without earth (not land we buy) we cannot build

    Without sun ( light & fire energy or heat in the atmosphere) our body will not exist, we will be stone cold (dead)


    Without space you cannot create. It is in the emptiness of the space that creation takes place.

    Space is the thing where earth. Water, fire and air are filled in.

  • ratnaveera profile image

    ratnaveera 7 years ago from Cumbum

    Of course chemically they all are not elements. The concept had been followed by from many centuries by our ancestors to get basic knowledge about our body and earth. Thanks a lot for coming here and adding your nice comments ABC123.

  • profile image

    ABC123 7 years ago

    NONE of those 5 are elements. Try: Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Sulphur, Phosphorus/Arsenic.

  • profile image

    Facts About Earth 7 years ago

    Wow! I had never really thought about the fact that the boiling point of water changes with altitude. That was a really cool point. Thanks for the great page!!!!! Really enjoyed the read. :)

  • profile image

    MILEITA VAKALOA 8 years ago


  • ratnaveera profile image

    ratnaveera 10 years ago from Cumbum

    Dear First Eagle, Thank you for visiting this Hub and your nice comments.

  • First Eagle profile image

    First Eagle 10 years ago

    Hello Ratnaveera

    Very interesting.

    First Eagle, Thor Einar

  • manoharv2001 profile image

    Manoharan 10 years ago from Bangalore - 560097, Karnataka, India

    good post

  • ratnaveera profile image

    ratnaveera 10 years ago from Cumbum

    Thanks mallu.

  • mallu profile image

    mallu 10 years ago

    superbly crafted.


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