ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel


Updated on August 30, 2012
partition of germany after first world war
partition of germany after first world war
Weimer constitution
Weimer constitution
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles document
Treaty of Versailles document
Field Marshal  Hindenburg
Field Marshal Hindenburg


Following the First world war, the Hohenzollern dynasty’s control of the German empire greatly weakened by October 1918. This became worse after the naval mutiny at Keil and as this rebellion rapidly spread to cities like Hamburg, Bremen, Lubeck, Munich, Frankfurt, Cologne and Leipzig, Kaiser William II was forced to seek armistice. On November 9, 1918, he abdicated the throne, paving the way for the emergence of Social Democratic Party. In February 1919, the national assembly met at Weimer and a new constitution was framed resulting in the formation of the Second Republic. Germany became a federal republic. Members to RIECHSTAG were elected by a direct vote by all those who were above twenty years of age and adopted the principle of proportional representation.

Despite the emergence of a democracy, the Germans were very discontented. The treaty of Versailles, which brought the First World War to an end, was looked upon by many as a great humiliation. This was on account of very stringent terms, which were incorporated in the treaty. They were as follows:


  • Germany lost Alsace-Lorraine to France
  • The Polish Corridor split Germany into two.
  • The SAAR coalfields were handed over to France for a period of 15 years
  • Memel was handed over to Lithuania
  • Upper Silesia was handed over to Poland and Czechoslovakia
  • German ‘Sudetenland’ was placed under Czech rule.
  • All German colonies were placed under the mandate of victorious allies who shared it among themselves.


  • Rhineland was de-militarized, which meant that no German troops were to be placed 30 miles to the east of Rhineland and this was intended to be implemented for the next fifteen years.
  • The German army was cut to have only one lakh troops and there was to be no general staff.
  • National service was stopped and there was no trained reserve. With regard to arms and ammunitions, the German army would no longer have tanks, aircrafts, heavy guns or battleships.
  • Germany was to pay heavily for the war damages caused to the Allies and their property.
  • Plans were made to put the Kaiser on trial for war crimes but which was dropped following the objections of the Dutch government.

All this created the right atmosphere for turmoil and discontent. This was compounded by the great depression of the 20’s which hit Germany really hard. The German economy tottered and the health of the republic was fragile owing to the emergence of too many political parties with no clear majority in the Reichstag. Political uncertainty was largely due to the non-cooperation of parties like the communist and social democrats amongst themselves and this affected the German economy and the people at large. The German economy was in such a bad shape that the mark became almost worthless in its value during these critical years. Though Hindenburg one of the most successful generals of Kaiser and greatly respected by all Germans was at the helm, he could nothing to save the situation.

This situation convinced the people that no mild remedies would suffice and that someone with very firm ideas and firmness was needed to save Germany. This was the situation which Adolph Hitler tried to capitalize. As a wounded First World War soldier he felt that Germans got a very raw deal by the treaty and German pride was hit by the humiliating treaty. He poured all his anger, anguish and ambitions in the book ‘Mein Kampf’ which later became a blue print for the setting up of Nazi Germany.


Submit a Comment

No comments yet.


This website uses cookies

As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

Show Details
HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)