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History of Europe

Updated on May 17, 2013

9000 B.C.

Settling of the islands of the Mediterranean Sea.

8700-8400 B.C.

Maglemosian peoples settle in and inhabit Britain.

8300 B.C.

Nomadic hunters come to England.

8000 B.C

Eiker County of south-eastern Norway is inhabited. Pulli settlement in Estonia. Parts of Denmark settled.

7500 B.C.

Mesolithic hunter and gatherers reach Ireland.

7000 B.C.

First Neolithic settlements along to shores of the Caribbean Sea.

6850-4800 B.C.

Sesclo culture in Greece.

6000 B.C.

Neolithic agriculture spreads from Turkey to the Balkans. Formation of the English channel, by the North Sea flooding the land bridge between England and Europe.

5900 B.C.

Beginning of the Vinca culture the southern shores of the Danube River.

5500 B.C.

Earliest examples of metallurgy in Vinca culture (in Serbia, Balkans).

5500-2750 B.C.

Trypillian Culture (in eastern Romania-, eastern Ukraine, and Moldova).

5200 B.C.

Start of the inhabitation of the island of Malta.

5000 B.C.

Beginning of farming in northern-, and central Europe. Pelasgians migrate to the Balkans. Earliest writing systems (ex.: Vinca culture).

5000-4500 B.C.

Ghar Dalam phase of Neolithic farmers on Malta, possibly immigrant from Sicily.

4900-4600 B.C.

Circular ditches in Central Europe.

4800-4000 B.C.

Dimini in place of the Sesklo culture in central Greece.

4500 B.C.

Settlement of Chirokitia in Cyprus. End of the Neolithic age in Cyprus.

4500-3500 B.C.

Sredny Stog culture north of the Sea of Azov in Russia.

4250-3750 B.C.

Making of Menhir alignments at Menec (in France).

4100-3500 B.C.

New wave of Sicilian immigrants to Malta bring further development on Malta.

Around 4000 B.C.

First settlers from Minoan Crete arrive the island of There (Santorini (Greece)).

3600 B.C.

Megalithic temple complex of Ggagantija is built in Malta (on the Gozo Island). The Ggagantija is the oldest free standing structure on Earth (although debated the Gobekli Tepe is older), and the oldest religious structure in the world.

3600-3200 B.C.

Mnajdra temple on Malta; first European building with furniture in it.

2nd half of 3rd century B.C.

Early Bronze at the coastal areas of the Aegean Sea. Early Minoan culture on Crete.

3000 B.C.

Beginning of the Copper Age on most of the continent. Building of megalith burial grounds and temples. Start of Cycladic culture in Greece. Start of Minoan culture on Crete.

3000-2000 B.C.

Vessels appear in Denmark.

2600 B.C.

Beginning of Chalcolithic cultures on the Iberian Peninsula (present day Spain and Portugal).

Around 2300 B.C.

Metal is used in northern Europe.

2300 B.C. – 1600 B.C.

Unetice culture in southern and central Germany, Czech Republic, and western Poland.

2200 B.C. – 1800 B.C.

Beaker culture in Western Europe.

Around 2000 B.C.

First Achaean and Ionian tribes enter Peloponnesian Peninsula. Beginning of the golden age of the Bronze Age Minoan culture (called middle Minoan era). Appearance of the Crete writing.

Around 1800 B.C.

Early Bronze Age on the central and the western part of the continent.

Around 1700 B.C.

Italicus tribes begin to migrate to the Appenine peninsula.

Between 1627 B.C. and 1600 B.C.

Eruption of Thera Volcano on Santorini destroys much of the Minoan culture (most notably the settlement of Akrotiri). Possibly inspired Plato’s Atlantis story.

Around 1600 B.C.

Beginning of the last part of the Bronze Age Minoan culture (called the late Minoan Civilization). A unified kingdom is formed on Crete with Knossos as the capital. It is the peak of the Minoan civilization. End of Cycladic culture in Greece. The immigration of the Achaean and Ionian tribes to Peloponnesian Peninsula ends. Achaean kingdoms begin to form. They adopt the Cretan writing (linear B type writing). Start of the Mycenaean Age.

1600 B.C. – 1200 B.C.

Tumulus culture in Central Europe.

Around 1500 B.C.

Middle part of the Bronze Age in Eastern-, and Western Europe.

1500 B.C. – 1100 B.C.

Mycenaean culture. Terramare culture in Italy and Dalmatic (southern Croatia) culture begins.

1450 B.C.

Minoan civilization starts to decline.

Around 1400 B.C.

The Mycenaean culture flourishes. Mycenae has a leading role in the Eagean Sea's Basin.

Around 1375 B.C.

The Mycenaeans destroy the Minoan civilization.

Around 1200 B.C.

"Sea peoples" appear at the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea. The late, declining era of the Mycenae Age begins. Late Bronze Age in Central-, and Western Europe.

1187 B.C.

Fall of Troy in Greece.

Around 1100 B.C.

The beginning Dorian migration destroys Mycenae. The formation of the Mycenaean kingdoms end. Beginning of the early Iron Age on the coastal areas of the Aegean Sea.

Around 950 B.C.

Attica is unified with the lead of Athens.

800 B.C.

Rise of Etruscan civilization in north-, and western Italy.

776 B.C.

Organization of the first Olympic games. Beginning of Greek calendar.

753 B.C.

Rome founded (date is based on literary sources, most notably of Varro.)

Around 750 B.C.

The beginning of the Hallstatt culture, which is the first stage of the Iron Age on the continent. Beginning of the Greek colonization. Homer writes stories about the war of Troy (Iliad, Odyssey).

Mid 7th century B.C.

Formation of the solder state of Sparta.

Around 600 B.C.

The Turannis form of government spreads in the Greek polises.

6th century B.C.

Central part of Italy is conquered by Etruscan city states.

594 B.C.

Laws of Solon reform the Athenian constitution.

560 B.C.

The beginning of the tyranny of Peisistratus in Athens. During his rule Athens becomes a marine power and emerges among the Greek polises.

509 B.C.

Republic of Rome founded.

490 B.C.

Battle of Marathon.

480 B.C.

Battle of Thermopylae.

431 B.C.

Peloponnesian War.

395 B.C.

Corinthian War.

264 B.C.

First Punic War.

218 B.C.

The Second Punic War begins between Rome and Cartage. Hannibal crosses the Alps and enters Italy.

217 B.C.

Hannibal defeats the Romans in the Battle of Lake Trasimene.

216 B.C.

Hannibal destroys the roman army in the Battle of Cannae.

215 B.C.

First Macedonian war begins.

202 B.C.

The treaty ending the Second Punic War ensures the hegemony of the roman army at the western basin of the Mediterranean Sea.

200 B.C.

Second Macedonian war begins.

197 B.C.

Romans defeat at the Macedonians in the Battle of Cynocephalae. Macedonia looses its hegemony over the Greek city states.

171 B.C.

Third Macedonian war begins between Rome and Macedonia.

168 B.C.

Romans beat the Macedonians at the Battle of Pudna.

149 B.C.

Third Punic War begins.

146 B.C.

Battle of Corinth.

136 B.C.

Slave revolt brakes out in Sicily.

134 B.C.

The reform movement of Gracchus begins in Rome.

132 B.C.

The era of civil wars begin in the Republic of Rome.

118 B.C.

Founding the province of Gallia Narbonensis (south-eastern France).

104 B.C.

Slave revolt brakes out in Sicily.

82 B.C.

Dictatorship of Lucius Cornelius Sulla begins in Rome.

73 B.C.

Slave revolt brakes out in Italy with the lead of Spartacus.

60 B.C.

Founding of the First Triumvirate (Pompeius, Crassus, and Julius Caesar) in Rome.

58 B.C.

Caesar begins conquering Gallia (present day France).

55 B.C.

Caesar’s conquest of Britain begins.

48 B.C.

Civil war breaks out between Caesar and Pompeius. Pompeius looses to Caesar in the Battle of Pharsalus.

46 B.C.

Caesar reforms the Roman calendar (Julian calendar).

45 B.C.

The civil war ends with the victory of Caesar. Caesar has himself appointed temporary Imperator (dictator), and Pontifex Maximus (high priest).

44 B.C.

Brutus and Cassius kill Caesar (Ides of March; March 15.), to reinstate the republic. New civil war breaks out.

43 B.C.

Formation of the Second Triumvirate (Octavianus, Antonius, Lepidus).

42 B.C.

Triumvirates defeat the army of the proponents of the republic at Philippi, Macedonia.

40 B.C.

Triumvirates divide the Roman Empire among themselves.

31 B.C.

Octavianus defeats the fleet of Antonius and Cleopatra in the Battle of Actium. Civil war era ends.

30 B.C.

Octavianus becomes practically the sole ruler of the Roman Empire.

27 B.C.

Octavianus has himself appointed himself as Princeps (emperor); he is renamed Ceaser Augustus; Augustus becomes first emperor of Rome.

15 B.C.

The Romans conquer Raetia, and Noricum.

9 A.D.

Germanic tribes wipe out three roman legions in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Romans give up part of Germania lieing east of the Rhine River.


Emperor Augustus dies. His successor is Tiberius.


Emperor Tiberius dies. His successor is Caligula.


Following the murder of Caligula, Claudius becomes the new emperor of Rome.


Claudius begins conquering Britain.


Londinium founded (later renamed London) as a Roman civilian settlement (civitas).


Following the murder of Emperor Claudius, Nero becomes the emperor of Rome.


Most of Rome burns down.


Martyrdom of the apostles Peter and Paul in Rome.


Emperor Nero commits suicide.


Vespasianus wins the struggle for power following the death of Nero.


Following the death of Vespasianus, his son, Titus becomes the new emperor of Rome. Eruption of Mount Vesuvius destroys the cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabiae.


Following the death of Titus, Domitianus becomes emperor of Rome.


Construction of Limes Germanicus (line of frontier) begins on the order of Domitianus.


The conquering of Britain ends (which began in 55 B.C.).


Following the assassination of Domitianus, Traianus becomes emperor of Rome. During his rule Rome reaches its greatest territorial extent.


Traianus dies. His successor on the throne is Hadrianus. He stops the eastward expansions of Traianus.


Emperor Hadrianus dies. His successor is Antoninus Pius, under whose rule Rome experiences one of its most flourishing eras.


Following the death of Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius becomes the new emperor of the Roman Empire.


Following the death of Marcus Aurelius the Roman Empire enters the era of its decline.


Septimius Severus becomes the new Roman Emperor. He manages to stabilize his power only through a civil war (193-197).


Caracalla becomes emperor of Rome.


Constitutio Antoniniana extends civil rights to all free peoples of the Roman Empire.


Hispania divided up into Gallaecia, Tarraconensis, Baetica and Lusitania.


Alemannes (a Germanic tribe) break through the limes in Germania. Romans give up the limes.


Era of soldier emperors begin. This era is characterized by the general decline of the empire.


First general persecution of Christians during Emperor Decius.


The first large scale attack of the Germanic tribes against the Roman Empire begins.


Diocletianus becomes the emperor of the Roman Empire.


Diocletianus appoints Numerian, Carinus' brother as co-emperor, to rule of the provinces of the empire; this divides up the Roman Empire to Western Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire (later the Byzantine Empire, which then become the Ottoman Turkish Empire, which fell in the First World War).


The two emperors shares power with two vice-emperors. Tetrarchy ("rule of four") is constituted in the Roman Empire.


Economic reforms of Diocletianus.


Beginning of the last large scale persecution of Christians.


Diocletianus resigns. The system of tetrarchy collapses; war breaks out between the co-emperors.


Constantinus (Constantine the Great) is appointed emperor of the western part of the empire.


Edict of Milan by emperors Constantine I and Licinius grants religious freedom throughout the Roman Empire.


Council of Nicea (in Turkey) decides on the doctrines of the Church.


Constantine builds a capital city (Constantinople) on the site of a Greek colony, Byzantium. The center of power in the Roman Empire shifts eastward.


Constantinus (Constantine the Great) dies.


The Huns cross the Volga River and push the Visigoths westward. Period of migrations begins.


The Visigoths entering the Roman Empire defeat the Romans in the Battle of Adrianople.


Theodosius I., the Great (ruled: 375-395), the ruler of the eastern part of the Roman Empire settles the Visigoths, the allies of the empire.


The Roman Empire splits in half; Western Roman Empire (capital in Milan, then in Ravenna) and Eastern Roman Empire (capital in Constantinople).


Alaric and the Visigoths invade Greece.


The Burgundians, Alemannes, Suebis, Vandals, and the Alans cross the Rhine River, and spread throughout Gallia. This was the most secure limines (boundary) or the Late (27 B.C. – 476 A.D.) Roman Empire; start of ravages of roman cities and the order in northern Gallia; start of the decline (and fall) of the Roman Empire.


Alaric, king of the Visigoth, sacks Rome.


Formation of the Kingdom of Burgundy on the territory of the Western Roman Empire. Capital city is Worms.


Formation of the Visigothic Kingdom. Capital city is Tolosa.


Romans defeat the Persians.


Attila becomes prince of the Huns.


Aetius, Roman general, in alliance with the Huns, crushes the Kingdom of Burgundy.


The Burgundians found a new kingdom in the valley of Rhone.


The English and the Saxons begin the re-conquest of Britain.


In the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains, Attila, prince of the Huns defeats the unified Roman and Germanic army, lead by Aetius.


Attila attacks Italy and reaches Rome.


Attila, prince of the Huns, dies. His empire, spreading from the Rhine to the Ural Mountains, breaks up shortly afterwards.


The Vandals ravage Rome.


The Ostrogoths, migrating from Pannonia, settle in Gallia, and in the Eastern Roman Empire.


Odoaker, general of the support troops of the Germanic tribes, forced the last Western Roman emperor to resign; The Western Roman Empire ceases to exist; end of Classical antiquity.


Clovis I. becomes the king of the Franks.


Theodoric (the Great), king of the Ostrogoths (ruled: 475-526) defeats Odoaker, who rules in Italy. Formation of the Ostrogothic Kingdom.


Clovis I., Frankish ruler, defeats the Visigoths, who found a new nation in Hispania.


Clovis I., Frankish king, founder of the Frankish kingdom, dies.


Justinianus becomes ruler of the Eastern Roman Empire. During his rule (527-565), he conquers the Mediterranean Sea basin.


Justinianus passes the Roman law, “Corpus Juris Civilis”, which later becomes cornerstone of the legal history of Europe.


Foundation of the first Benedictine Monastery (Monte Cassino).


The Franks conquer Burgundy.


Byzantine army invades Italy.


At Mons Lactarius, the Eastern Roman Empire defeats the Ostrogoths. The Ostrogothic Kingdom ceases to exist.


Emperor Justinianus, the most significant ruler of the Eastern Roman Empire, dies.


Foundation of the Khazar Kaganate.


Visigoths conquer Suebic Kingdom, which was independent since 411.


Pope I. (Great) Gregory sends monks to convert the Anglo-Saxons.

1st half of the 7th century

Slavic tribes spread throughout the Balkan Peninsula. The Greek and Latin people pushed to the sea shores, and in the cities.


Siege of Constantinople by Avars, Slavs and Sassanid Persians.


Siege of Constantinople by the Arabs.


Bulgarians and Turkish people around the Don River found a state in the area of the present day northern Bulgaria.


Pippin II. defeats the king, and becomes the official ruler of the Frankish kingdom.

Around 700

Swedish Vikings (Varangians) become rulers of the tribes living in the north-west part of the present day Russia.


Arabs cross the straight into Hispania, and, in the Battle of Jerez, defeat the Visigoths. The Visigothic Kingdom ceases to exist.


Pippin II. dies. His successor on the throne of the Frankish Kingdom is Charles Martel, Major Domus.


Second siege of Constantinople by the Arabs.


Islamic conquest of Spain. On the northern part of the Pyrenees peninsula the Kingdom of Asturias is formed.


In the Battle of Tours, Charles Martel stops the Arab advancement.


Charles Martel dies. Pippin, the Short, Major Domus, becomes the Frankish Kingdom.


By electing Pippin, the Short, as the king, the Carolingian dynasty succeeds the Merovings, who ruled since 430.


The only surviving Umayyad founds an independent Muslim state on the Arabic areas of the Iberian Peninsula. Formation of the Papal State.


Pippin, the Short, Frankish king, dies. His successor is Charlemagne; during his rule the Frankish Kingdom reaches its peak.


Charlemagne launches a war against the Saxons.


Charlemagne defeats the Lombards in the Battle of Pavia, and expands his rule to northern Italy.


Charlemagne defeats the Saxons.


Vikings (Normans) sack the monastery in Lindisfarne. This marks the beginning of Viking attack that is going to last for more then 2 centuries.


The Bulgarians defeat the Byzantines in the Battle of Pliska.


Michael I., Byzantine emperor, acknowledges the empire of Charlemagne in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, in exchange, Venice, which was conquered by the Franks in 806, is becomes part of the Byzantine Empire again.


Siege of Constantinople by Bulgarians


Charlemagne, Frankish king, dies.


Benedict of Aniane begins reforming the Benedictine monasteries.


Siege of Constantinople by Thomas the Slav.


Mojmir I. founds the Moravian Principality.


According to the ruling of the Treaty of Verdun, the Frankish empire is divided to three parts.


The Danes begin conquering Eastern England.


The rule of Boris I., prince of Bulgaria, begins. During his rule Bulgarians are converted to Christianity.


Second siege of Constantinople by the Bulgarians.


Pribina dies. His son is appointed to be his successor by the East Frankish king.


Rurik, a Varangian (Viking) mercenary leader, founds Novgorod.


Cyril and Methodius, Byzantine missionaries, also the creators of the first Slavic alphabet and the founders of the Slavic Church, begin their work in the Moravian Empire.


Basil I., founder of the Macedonian dynasty, becomes emperor of the Byzantine Empire.


The Treaty of Mersen annexes the eastern part of Lorraine to the East Frankish Empire.


Alfred the Great becomes king of Wessex. During his rule he stops the advancement of the Danes, and prepares the unification of England.

Around 872

Harald I. unifies the Norwegian tribes (after winning the Battle of Hafrsfjord), creating the unified Norway (for the first time in history); King Harald becomes first king of Norway.


Norwegians begin populating Iceland.


The Italian branch of the Carolingians dies out.


Beginning of the rule of Oleg, prince of Novgorod. During his rule he unifies the smaller Slavic tribes under the name of Kievan Rus.


Whole of Lorraine becomes part of the East Frankish Kingdom in the Treaty of Ribemont.


Basil I., Byzantine emperor, dies. His successor is Leo VI., the Wise.


Simeon becomes ruler of the Bulgarians. During his rule, he forces the Byzantine Empire to pay taxes, and takes on the title of Czar (Emperor).


Hungarians defeat Berengar, Prince of Friul, in the Battle of Brenta.

Around 900

Formation of the Kingdom of Navarre.


Duke William I. of Aquitaine founds the Benedictine monastery of Cluny, which soon becomes the center of church reforms.


Normans acquire Normandy from the West Frankish kingdom. The eastern (German) branch of the Carolingians dies out.


Oleg, the founder of the Russian state dies. Leo VI. the Wise, Byzantine emperor, and excellent scientist, and lawgiver, dies.


By Henry I., the Fowler, rising to the throne, the Saxon Dynasty acquires to the German throne.


Formation of the Croatian Kingdom. Formation of the independent Kingdom of Leon.


Simeon, the greatest ruler of the first Bulgarian state, dies.


Henry I., the Fowler, defeats the roaming Hungarians.


Henry I., the Fowler, German king, dies. His successor on the German throne is Otto I., the Great.


Third siege of Constantinople by the Bulgarians.


Constantine VII., the Purple-born, becomes the Byzantine emperor.


Otto I., the Great, defeats the roaming Hungarians at Augsburg, which ends the western campaigns of the Hungarians.


Denmark is united by King Harald Bluetooth, and converted to Christianity. The roaming Hungarians reach the Byzantine Empire.


Otto I., the Great, is crowned king in Rome. Formation of the Holy Roman Empire. Sviatoslav I., Grand Prince of Kiev, begins his rule.


Harald Bluetooth, Danish king, converts to Christianity. Formation of the Danish state.


Sviatoslav I., Grand Prince of Kiev, conquers the Khazarian state. Mieszko I., ruler of Poland, founder of the Piast dynasty, converts to Christianity.


Sviatoslav I., Grand Prince of Kiev, defeats the East Bulgarians.


The roaming Hungarians are defeated by the Byzantines.


Sviatoslav I., Grand Prince of Kiev, dies.


Otto I., the Great, Holy Roman Emperor, dies. His successor is Otto II. Prague becomes an Episcopal seat, subordinated to Mainz.


Vladimir I., the Great, Prince of Novgorod, becomes ruler of the principality of Kiev.


Erik the Red (the Viking) discovers Greenland.


Hugo Capet acquires the French throne. The Carolingian dynasty is succeeded by the Capetian dynasty.


Vladimir I., the Great, Grand Duke of Kiev, converts to Christianity.


Boleslav I., the Courageous, Polish prince, begins his rule.


Olaf I., Norwegian king, begins his rule. He converts to Christianity, and unites the smaller Norwegian kingdoms.


Foundation of the Archdiocese of Gniezno.


Henry II. becomes emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. During his rule he expands his rule to Italy.


King Olaf, who unified the Swedish kingdoms, converts to Christianity.


Basileios II., Byzantine emperor, crushes the Bulgarian army.


Vladimir I., who unified the Russian Grand Duchy of Kiev, dies.


Pisa and Genoa occupy the Sardinia (previously in possession of the Arabs). Knut, the Great, Danish prince, defeats the English.


Knut, the Great, becomes ruler of Denmark. During his rule, he unifies the Danish-, English, and Norwegian kingdoms. The Byzantine Empire conquers the whole of the Balkan Peninsula.


Jaroslav, The Wise, Grand Duke of Kiev, begins his rule. During his time the Grand Duchy of Kiev experiences its golden era.


Henry II., emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, dies. Henry II. was the last of the Saxon dynasty. He is succeeded by II. Conrad, founder of the Salian dynasty. Boleslav I., the Courageous, is crowned king of Poland.


Boleslav I., the Courageous, dies, Boleslav I. finished uniting the polish tribes.


The Burgund Kingdom becomes part of the Holy Roman Empire.


Knut, the Great, king of Denmark, dies. Sancho III., king of Navarre, divides up his kingdom among his sons. Formation of the kingdoms of Navarre, Castile, and of Aragon.


Kingdoms of Leon, and of Castile, is unified by Castilian king Fernando I., who conquered Leon.


The Czech Principality becomes vassal of the Holy Roman Empire.


The Normans begin to rule in southern Italy.


Siege of Constantinople by a Byzantine rebel, Leo Tornikios


Jaroslav, the Wise, Grand Duke of Kiev, dies. Christian church permanently splits into Catholic-, and Greek Orthodox Churches.


Henry IV. is the new emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. End of the Macedonian Dynasty in the Byantine Empire.


The Lateran Council. It reforms church investments, simony, and celibacy, and regulates papal elections.


Normans conquer Sicily.


William, the Conqueror, Prince of Normandy, defeats the English in the Battle of Hastings, and conquers the Kingdom of England.


Gregory VII. becomes pope.


Gregory VII. forbids that seculars give gifts of ecclesiastical titles, and to appoint bishops. An investment struggle begins between the pope and the Holy Roman Empire.


Henry IV., emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, dethrones Pope Gregory VII. in the Council of Worms, who in turn excommunicates the emperor.


Henry IV., in the castle of Canossa, humbles himself before the pope in order that the pope lifts his order of excommunication.


Alexios Komnenos I., founder of the Komnenos dynasty, becomes emperor of the Byzantine Empire.


Alfonso VI., king of Leon and Castile, occupies Toledo from the Moors. The Moors are begun to be pressed out from the Iberian Peninsula. Pope VII. Gregory dies. Vratislav, Czech prince, receives the title of a king from the Holy Roman Emperor.


First Crusade begins to free the Holy Land (Palestine).


Foundation of the Cistercian Holy Orders.


Henry V. forces Henry IV. to resign from the throne of the Holy Roman Empire.


The Concordat of Worms ends the investiture struggle between the pope and Holy Roman Emperor. It regulates the practice of investiture in the Holy Roman Empire.


Henry V., Holy Roman Emperor, dies. He was the last of the Salian (Frankish) dynasty. The Grand Duchy of Kiev begins to be broken into smaller duchies.


The Kingdom of Sicily is formed by unifying Sicily, Calabria, and Puglia.


Conrad III., of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, becomes the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire.


Formation of the Kingdom of Portugal.


Heinrich the Lion, of the Welf Dynasty, attacks the Obodrites. Second Crusade is launched.


Conrad III., Holy Roman Emperor, dies. He is succeeded by Frederick I. Barbarossa.


Henry II., count of Anjou, founder of the Plantagenet Dynasty, becomes the ruler of England.


The Pope gives Ireland to England.


Austria becomes a principality of the Holy Roman Empire.


Frederick I. Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor, deprives the cities of Lombardy from their rights of self-governance.


Frederick I. Barbarossa, demolishes the city of Milan for rising up against the empire.


The Lombardian cities form an alliance against the Holy Roman Empire.


Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, is assassinated by followers of King Henry II., for not agreeing with his anti-church policies.


In the Battle of Legnano, Barbarossa Frederick, suffers a decisive defeat by the Lombardian League (an alliance formed by cities of Lombardy).


The Serbians gains independence from the Byzantine Empire. Philip Augustus II. becomes king of the France. During his rule he sets the basis of the hegemony of the Kingdom of France in Europe.


Frederick I. Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor, acknowledges the independence of the Lombardian cities in the Peace Treaty of Constance.


Komnenos dynasty dies out. During the succeeding Angelos dynasty, the Byzantine Empire breaks apart.


Bulgarians gain back their independence from the Byzantine Empire.


Third crusade begins. Henry II., king of England, dies. His successor is Richard I., the Lionheart.


Pope Clement III. approved the German Teutonic Order (February 6). Frederick I. Barbarossa dies, Henry VI. becomes Holy Roman Emperor.


Henry VI. takes possession of Norman Kingdom of Sicily.


Stephan Nemanja, founder of the unified Serbian state, resigns for the benefit of his sons. His successor is Stefan II.


Henry VI., Holy Roman Emperor dies.


Innocent III. is voted pope. During his rule, the medieval papal state reaches its political peal.


Richard I., the Lionheart, king of England, dies. His successor on the throne is his younger brother, John.


German Crusaders found the city of Riga. German colonization begins in the Baltic region.


The 4th Crusade begins.


First siege of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade; Alexius IV. takes the throne while Alexius III. flees to Mosynopolis (in Thrace).


John, king of England, looses much of his French territories. The Crusaders takes possession of Constantinople; the city is sacked. The Byzantine Empire is replaced by the Latin Empire.


Otto IV. becomes ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. Through him, the House of Welf temporarily replaces the Hohenstaufen Dynasty on the Holy Roman Empire’s throne.


Pope III. the Innocent, announces a crusade against the Albigens Heresy in southern France.


The Christian states of the Iberian Peninsula defeat the Almohad dynasty in the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. With Frederick II., ruler of the Kingdom of Sicily, rising to the throne, Hohenstaufens begin to rule the Holy Roman Empire again.


James I., the Conquerer, a significant figure of the “Reconquista” becomes king of Aragon. During his rule the Kingdom of Aragon becomes a major European power.


John, King of England, is defeated by the French, and is forced to let go of lands north of Loire in benefit of Philip II. Augustus.


English nobles force the pass the “Magna Charta Libertatum” King John, which is charter of commons rights. The Fourth Council of the Lateran.


Pope III., the Innocent, dies. John, king of England, dies. The pope acknowledges the Dominican Order of monks.


Ferdinand III, the Saint, the outstanding figure of the “Reconquista”, becomes king of Castile.


Ivan Asen II. rises to the Bulgarian throne. During his rule, the Bulgarian Empire reaches his largest extent


Philip Augustus II., king of France, dies. His successor is Louis VIII., under who conquers more land from the English. The pope gives permission to found the Franciscan Order. The Mongols defeat the unified army of the Russian Princes in the Battle of the Kalka River.


The Teutonic Knights, after being chased out of Barce (coastal region in north Africa between Tripoli and Egypt), settles in Mazovia.


The Teutonic Knights begins a war against Prussians. Louis VIII., French king, dies. He is succeeded by Saint Louis IX., whose rule is the golden era of the French feudal monarchy.


Stefan Nemanjic, first Serbian king dies.


The Treaty of Paris ends the war against the Albigenses. The French king expands his rule to the previously independent, southern part of the country.


Saint Ferdinand III., unifies the Kingdom of Leon, and the Kingdom of Castile.


Pope Gregory IX. organizes the inquisition.


Siege of Constantinople by Bulgarians and Nicaeans; it was unsuccessful.


Kingdom of Castile reoccupies Cordoba from the Moors.


James I., the Conqueror, King of Aragon, occupies Valencia from the Arabs.


Gunpowder starts to be used in Europe.


Batu Khan occupies Kiev, and conquers the Russian princes.


The Mongols defeat the German-Polish army in the Battle of Leignitz.


Alexander Nevsky, prince of Novgorod, stops the advancement of the Teutonic Knights on top of the ice of the Lake Peipus.


First General Council of Lyons.


Saint Ferdinand III., king of Castile, occupies Sevilla from the Moors.


Frederick II., Holy Roman Emperor and king of Sicily, dies.


Ottokar II. becomes Czech king (of Bohemia), who makes the Czech Kingdom a major power.


The Hohenstaufen dynasty dies out. An interregnum begins in the Holy Roman Empire, which slips into anarchy.


The Provisions of Oxford ensure the rights of the English barons and lower nobility.


Trading cities in northern Germany form a trade alliance (Hansa).


Second unsuccessful siege of Constantinople (January-April).


Michael VIII. Palaeologus, Nicaean emperor, occupies Constantinople (without a siege, because the city was poorly defended) from the Western Christians. End of the Latin Empire.


Henry III., King of England, summons the first Parliament.


The pope gives Sicily to Charles, Count of Anjou, who eradicates the power of the Hohenstaufens, and thus becomes king of Sicily, and Naples.


With the election of Rudolph I. of the Habsburg family, founder of the Habsburg dynasty, the interregnum in the Holy Roman Empire, ends.


During the unsuccessful Seventh Crusade, Saint Louis IX., king of France, dies.


Second Council of Lyon.


In the Battle of Durnkrut, Rudolph I., with the help of Hungarians, defeats II. Ottokar, Czech king. End of the short-lived Czech super power.


Austria and Steierland becomes the property of the Habsburgs. The people of Sicily revolts against the Anjous, and becomes free. Sicily becomes property of the Aragons. Edward I., king of England, annexes Wales to the kingdom of England.


Beautiful Philip IV. becomes the French king. During his rule, the papal state comes under his influence.


The three original Swiss Cantons of Schwyz, Uri, and Unterwalden, which are under Holy Roman rule, conclude and everlasting alliance, to protect their privileges.


Beautiful Philip IV. occupies Flanders.

Around 1300

Dry compass invented.


Flanders’ freedom fight results in Independence from the Kingdom of France. Pope Boniface VIII., demanding the independence of the power of the church from the carnal power, has a conflict with Beautiful Philip IV.


The Czech Premysl dynasty dies out. Order of the Johannites settles on the island of Rhodes.


Edward II. becomes king of England. He makes a failed attempt to occupy the Kingdom of Scotland. Beautiful Philip IV. tries the Knights Templars at court.


Henry VII., founder of the Luxembourg Dynasty, becomes emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.


Pope Clement V., under the influence of Philip IV., moves his capital from Rome to Avignon. Avignon Papacy (called the “Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy”) begins. The Teutonic Knights occupy Danzig (Gdansk). The Grand Master (Hochmeister) moves his capital from Venice to Marienburg (Malbork in Polish).


Through electing John the Blind, Son of Henry VII., Holy Roman Emperor, Luxembourgs become the king of Czechs.


Council of Vienne.


Pope Clement V., under pressure from Philip IV., disbands the Order of the Knights Templar.


Henry VII., Holy Roman Emperor dies.


Dual king election in the Holy Roman Empire. Wittelsbach Louis IV., Duke of Upper Bavaria, is becomes Holy Roman Emperor. Philip IV., King of France, dies.


The 3 ancient Cantons of Switzerland have a major victory over the Habsburgs in the Battle of Morgarten.


Gedimin becomes Grand Emperor of the Grand Duchy of Latvia.


Wladyslaw I. Lokietek crowns himself of Poland, after he unified the smaller principalities.


Ivan I. Danilovich Kalita, Grand Prince of Moscow, begins his rule. During his time, the Grand Duchy of Moscow becomes one of the strongest Russian state.


Ivan I. moves the capital from Kiev to Moscow.


Edward II., king of England, is assassinated. His successor is Edward III.


The direct branch of the Capetian Dynasty in the Kingdom of France dies out. The Valois branch starts to rule in the Kingdom of France. Ivan I. is appointed as the grand duke of the Tartars.


Stefan Uros IV. Dusan becomes King of Serbia.


Casimir III., the Great, becomes the ruler of the Kingdom of Poland.


Beginning of the Hundred Years’ War between England and France (will end in 1453). After the Capetian Dynasty dies out, Edward III. demands the throne of the Kingdom of France for Himself.


The English destroy the French fleet in the Battle of Sluys.


Ivan I., Grand Duke of Moscow, dies. Gedimin, founder of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, dies.


Edward III., defeats the French on land also, in the Battle of Crecy. Stefan IV., king of Serbia, crowns himself as czar. Luxembourg John, king of the Czech kingdom, dies. Waldemar IV., King of Denmark, sells Estonia to the Teutonic Knights.


Louis IV. dies. His successor on the throne of the Holy Roman Empire, and on the Czech Kingdom, is Luxemburg Charles IV. Rome becomes a republic for a short period of time.


The Bubonic Plague (also called “Black Plague”) breaks out (which lasts until 1350). More than a third of the population of Europe will be wiped out.


The Ottoman Turks establish themselves on the Balkan Peninsula.


Stefan IV., king of the unified Serbian state, dies. The Kingdom of Serbia breaks apart into numerous principalities.


The French are defeated by the English in the Battle of Poitiers. Charles IV. issues the constitution of the Holy Roman Empire.


The German Hansa cities make alliance with each other. Peasants’ revolt in the Kingdom of France (“jacquerie”).


The Treaty of Bretigny, dictated by England, ends the first phase of the Hundred Years’ War.


The Turks occupy Hadrianopolis.


Charles V., the Wise, becomes king of France.


Hadrianopolis becomes the capital of the Turkish Empire.


Charles V., the Wise, renews the war against the English. Second phase of the Hundred Years’ War begins.


The Peace of Stralsund ends the war between the Hansa cities and Denmark (started in 1367). The peace treaty ensures Hansa hegemony. The Teutonic Knights defeats Lithuania. Casimir II., the Great, dies, and with him the Piast Dynasty of the Kingdom Of Poland. His successor on the Polish throne is Louis I., the Great, king of Hungary. Through him Hungary and Poland enters a personal union.


Gregory XI. moves back to Rome from Avignon. The captivity of the papal state ends. Edward III., king of England, dies (21 June). His successor is Richard II.


Gregory XI. dies. Two popes are elected. The Western Schism (split of the Catholic Church) begins (will last until 1417).


Venetian navy destroys Genoa’s fleet.


Dmitrij Donskoj, Grand Duke of Moscow, defeats The Tartars at the Kulikovo Field by the Don River. Charles V., the Wise, king of France, dies.


Peasant Revolt of Wat Tyler in the Kingdom of England.


Louis I., the Great, king of Hungary and Poland, dies.


Formation of the Polish-Lithuanian Union. Foundation of the Jagiellon Dynasty. The Swiss, allied with southern German cities, defeat the Habsburgs in the Battle of Sempach.


In the Battle of Kosovo the Ottoman Turks defeat the Serbs. The principality of Serbia becomes vassal state of the Ottoman Empire.


Beginning of the blockade of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks, this will end in 1402.


Tvrtko I., founder of the independent Bosnia, dies.


The Turks occupy and sack Tirnovo (July). The medieval Bulgaria is occupied.


In the Battle of Nicopolis, western Crusaders, lead by Sigismund, king of Hungary, are defeated by the Turks.


The Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish nobles found the Kalmar Union. The Kalmar Union ensures the personal union of the three countries.


The parliament of England overthrows the king, Richard II. The Plantagenet Dynasty is replaced by one of the branches of its family tree, the Lancaster Dynasty.


The Teutonic Knights are defeated in the Battle of Grunwald by the Polish-Lithuanian army. Sigismund, of the Luxemburg dynasty, king of Hungary is elected to be ruler of the Holy Roman Empire.


Council of Constance (November 16 - April 22).


Jan Hus, Czech Christian reformer, is proclaimed a heretic and burned as in the presences of the Council of Constance (July 6). The English defeat the French in the Battle of Agincourt. The third (final) phase of the Hundred Years’ War begins.


At the Council of Constance, Martin V. is elected as pope (November 11). End of the Western Schism (split of the Catholic Church).


Major reforms are introduced into the church. Council of Constance ends.


The Hussite movement begins in Czech kingdom.


Luxemburg Sigismund (July 27) is crowned as Czech king. He launches a war campaign against the Hussites.


First Ottoman Siege of Constantinople, ending in a Byzantine victory.


The French defeat the English by Orleans. They are lead by Jeanne d’ Arc (Joan of Arc). The victory is a major turning point in the course of the Hundred Years’ War.


The English capture Jeanne d’ Arc, sue her, and burn her in Rouen.


The pope crowns Luxemburg Sigismund in Rome as the ruler of the Holy Roman Emperor.


The Anjou Dynasty in Naples dies out. The Aragon Dynasty succeeds on the throne.


The French reoccupy Paris from the English. The war against the Hussites ends.


Luxemburg Sigismund, German ruler, Hungarian, and Czech ruler, dies. With him the Luxemburg dies out. His successor is Habsburg Albert.


Habsburg Albert is elected as Czech and German king.


Council of Basel unites the Latin and the Greek churches, however, in practice, they never unite. Habsburg Albert II., emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, dies.


Habsburg Frederick III. becomes the head of the Holy Roman Empire.


In the Battle Of Varna (November 10.), the Turks defeat the Crusaders lead by Ladislaus, Polish and Hungarian king.


Gutenberg invents printing in Mainz, Germany.


Casimir IV. becomes ruler of Poland. During his rule, he stabilizes Poland.


The Hungarian army, lead by John Hunyadi, is defeated by the Turks in the Battle Of Kosovo.


The French defeat the English in the Battle of Castillon. The Hundred Years’ War ends. Only Calais remains under English rule within the Kingdom of France. Turks occupy Constantinople, and becomes new capital of the Turkish Empire.


War of the Roses begins in the Kingdom of England between the York-, and the Lancaster family.


Czech nobles elect Georg Podjebrad as king.


Serbia becomes part of the Ottoman Turkish Empire.


The Turkish end the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula.


Louis XI. becomes king of France. During his rule the Kingdom of France is strengthened.


Ivan III., the Great, begins his rule.


The Turks occupy Bosnia.


According to Peace Treaty of Torun, the Teutonic Knights has to give much land to the Kingdom of Poland. Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, begins ruling. During his rule the Duchy of Burgundy becomes one of the most important states of Europe.


George Kastrioti Skanderbeg, stops the advancement of the Turks in Albania. After his death Albania comes under the rule of the Turks and of Venice. Matthias I., king of Hungary, attacks the Czech Kingdom, ruled by Podebrad George. The Czech -Hungarian war begins.


Heirs of Castilia and Aragon, Isabella and Ferdinand, marry, creating the prerequisites of an unified Spain. Lorenzo de’ Medici becomes ruler of Venice. During his rule Venice becomes the leading state of Italy.


Podebrad George, Czech king, dies. His successor is Ladislaus IV. Jagiello. After wiping out the Lancaster family, the York family wins the War of the Roses.


Charles the Bold of Burgundy is defeated by the Swiss Confederates’ in the Battle of Murten.


Charles, the Bold, is defeated by the Swiss army in the Battle of Nancy and is killed. After his death, the Burgund state is divided up among Louis XI. (king of France) and Maximilian (Habsburg Prince of Austria).


In the Kingdom of Castile and in the Kingdom of Aragon, the inquisition is reinstated.


King Matthias, king of Hungary, meets the marquis of Moravia, prince of Silesia, and the marquis of Lausitz at the Peace Treaty of Olomouc. Ivan III. the Great, occupies Novgorod. The Castilian-, and Aragonian kingdoms are unified in a personal union; foundation of the Kingdom of Spain.


Ivan III. the Great, refuses to pay taxes to the Tartars.


Louis XI., king of France, dies.


Yorks in England are replaced by the Tudors on the throne (through king Henry VII.).


Lorenzo de’ Medici dies. Casimir IV., king of Poland, dies. With the occupation of Granada, the driving out of the Arabs from Europe (“reconquista”) ends.


Maximilian I. becomes emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.


The French-Spanish rivalry begins in Italy.


Louis XII. becomes king of France.


The Tartars, allied with Moscow, destroy the remainder of the Golden Horde.


Julius II. becomes pope.


Vasilij III. becomes grand prince of the Principality of Moscow.


Sigismund I., of the Jagiellon Dynasty, begins king of Poland.


Maximilian I. and Louis XII. ally (League of Cambra) against Venice.


Henry VIII. becomes king of England.


Pope Julius II. dies. He stabilized the papal state.


Louis XII., king of France, dies. His successor is Francis I.


Charles I., of the Habsburg dynasty, becomes king of Spain.


Martin Luther publishes his 95 theses in Wittenberg (October 31.).


Habsburg Maximilian I., Holy Roman emperor, founder of the Habsburg hegemony in Europe dies. His successor is Charles V., who becomes king of Spain under the name of Charles I. Martin Luther splits with Rome. Magellan’s expedition sails around the world for the first time.


The pope expels, and the Diet of Worms condemns Martin Luther (Edict of Worms). Ferdinand I. becomes ruler of Habsburg controlled areas.


The Turks occupy the island of Rhodes from the Johannites.


The Swedish, lead by Gustav I. (also known as Gustav Vasa), become free from Danish rule. The city of Zurich accepts the Church reform programs of Ulrich Zwingli.


German peasant revolt breaks out.


Charles V. defeats Francis I. in the Battle of Pavia in south-western Lombardy. Albrecht of Brandenburg, Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, secularizes the Teutonic Knights, and founds the Principality of Prussia, and joins the Reformation.


Foundation of the League of Cognac (in May) against Charles V. The first imperial Diet of Speyer (in August) allows the spread of Protestantism.


The mercenaries of Charles V. ravage Rome (Sacco di Roma).


Unsuccessful siege of Vienna by the Turks. In the Treaty of Zaragoza (signed on signed on April 22.), the Portuguese and Spanish divide up the eastern part of the world among themselves. Treaty of Cambrai (also called Peace of the Ladies”; August 3.) between Charles V. and Francis I. At the imperial Diet of Speyer the nobles protest against the impatient religious policies of the emperor.


Charles V. gives the island of Malta to the Johannites as a present. Charles V. is crowned as emperor by the pope. At the Diet of Augsburg, the Protestants propose the “Confessio Augustana” (the Augsburg Confession).


The Second Peace of Kappel ensures the congregational diversity of Switzerland. Foundation of the alliance of German protestant princes in Schmalkalden.


Pope Clement VII. excommunicates Henry VIII. because of his marriage. Vasilij, III. Grand Duke of Moscow, dies. He finished the unification of the Russian areas. His successor is Ivan IV., the Terrible.


Saint Ignatius of Loyola founds the Jesuit Order. Foundation of the Anglican Church, its head is the King of England.


Publication of Institution by John Calvin.


The Jesuit Order is approved by the pope.


John Calvin begins his work in Geneva. Creation of Calvin’s reformations. Henry VIII. becomes king of Ireland.


Reinstitution of the inquisition against the church reformation of Calvin.


Nicolaus Copernicus publishes his book; “De revolutionibus orbium coelestium” (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres). This book is regarded as the basis of heliocentric world view.


Francis I. is forced to gives Italy to Charles V. according to the terms of the Treaty of Crepy.


Beginning of the Council of Trident of the Catholic Church.


Ivan IV., the Terrible, has himself renamed "czar" of Russia. Henry VIII., king of England, dies. Francis I., king of France, dies.


Sigismund I., king of Poland, dies. His rule is considered as the golden age of Poland.


Second phase of the Schmalkaldic War between Charles V. and the protestant princes.


Catholic Maria Tudor (Maria I.) becomes ruler of England. In Geneva, at the order of Calvin, Michael Servetus, the theologian of nontrinitarian Christology, is burnt.


The Peace of Augsburg (September 25) temporarily ends the battle between German Catholics and protestants (ends Schmalkaldic War).


Charles V., ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, and ruler of the Kingdom of Spain (as Charles I.) retires. In the Holy Roman Empire, he is succeeded by his younger brother, Ferdinand I., and in Spain he is succeeded by his son, Philip II.


1558: Maria I. dies. Her successor on the throne of England is the daughter of Henry VIII., Elisabeth I.


The Spaniards win the Spanish-French War (started in 1556). In the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis, France gives up Italy and Burgundy.


A civil war breaks out between the French Huguenots and Catholics.


The Council of Trident ends.


Ferdinand I., Holy Roman Emperor, and Czech (Bohemia), and Hungarian king, dies. His successor is Maximilian II. John Calvin dies.


In the Netherlands a revolt breaks out against the Spanish rulers.


Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, 3rd duke of Alba, begins military dictatorship in the Netherlands.


The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuanian is unified in the Union of Lublin.


The Turks occupy Cyprus. In the Battle of Lepanto, the Turkish fleet is destroyed by the unified Christian fleet.


The male branch of the Jagiellon Dynasty dies out in the Kingdom of Poland. Thousands of Huguenots are slaughtered in Paris in the Eve of Saint Bartholomew.


The Kingdom of Poland becomes an elective monarchy (Republic of Nobles).


Istvan Bathory is elected king of Poland.


Francis Drake starts sailings around the world (December).


Formation of the Union of Arras of the southern provinces of the Netherlands.


The Northern Provinces of the Netherlands form the Union of Utrecht.


Phillip II., King of Spain, enforces his inheritance of the Kingdom of Portugal, a personal union is formed between the two kingdoms.


The Northern provinces of the Netherlands declare independence.


Calendar reform Pope Gregory XIII.


Ivan IV., the Terrible, Russian czar, dies. During his rule he introduced a very centralized government, and an expansionary policy.


Istvan Bathory, king of Poland, dies.


Elisabeth I. executes Stuart Maria. Stuart Maria was queen of Scotland between 1542 and 1568.


The English fleet, lead by Francis Drake and Walter Raleigh, defeats the Spanish Armada (ie.: Spanish fleet).


The Valois Dynasty, in France, dies out.


Revolt against English rule breaks out in Ulster of Ireland.


The Bourbons become rulers of the Kingdom of France, by Henry IV. becoming king of the country.


At the Council of Brest-Litovsk, the Ukrainian Orthodox-, and the Roman Catholic church are declared as unified congregations. Willem Barents discovers Novaja Zemlja, and the Spitzbergen.


The male branch of the Russian Rurik Dynasty dies out, sparking a power struggle in the Tzardom of Russia. Henry IV., king of France, in the Edict of Nantes, ensures freedom of religion for the Huguenots. The era of bloody civil war in the Kingdom of France ends. Philip II., king of Spain, dies. During his rule the Kingdom of Spain reaches is greatest geographical extent.


Giordano Bruno is burned in Rome for his views of an infinite universe. Foundation of the British East India Company.


Foundation of the Dutch East India Company (April 8.).


Elisabeth I., queen of England, dies. During her rule, England experiences its golden era. Her successor is James I.


The Protestant Union is formed in Germany.


The Catholic League is formed in Germany. An armistice ends to the revolt in the Netherlands. Practically an independent Netherlands is formed in the Treaty of Antwerp. The English Settle about 100 000 Scottish protestants in Ulster, Northern Ireland.


Henry IV., king of France, is assassinated. His heir is the minor Louis XIII. In the early years of his reign, his mother, Medici Maria, rules instead of him.


Gustav II. Adolf becomes king of Sweden.


After the death of Gustav II., Mathias becomes the Holy Roman Emperor.


Mikhail I Fyodorovich Romanov, and through him the Romanov Dynasty, becomes czar of Russia.


The meeting of the nobles in France is suspended (they aren’t summoned together until 1789).


The Duchy of Prussia becomes property of marquis of Brandenburg. The Czech nobles start a war against Austria, because of its suppressive policies; this begins the 30 years war. The first phase of the war ends with the victory of Vienna.


In the Battle of White Hill (November 8.), the Czech nobles are defeated.


Cardinal Richelieu becomes French principal minister.


James I., king of England (king as James VI. in Scotland), dies of a stroke. He is succeeded by Charles I.


The Kingdom of Denmark withdraws from the thirty years war.


Gustav II. Adolf, siding with the Protestants, enters the thirty years war.


Protestants win the Battle of Breitenfeld, a turnaround in the thirty years war.


Gustav II. Adolf, founder of the superpower status of Sweden, is killed in the Battle of Lutzen (November 16.).


Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius Wallenstein, the general of the emperor’s army is killed.


After the defeat in the Battle of Nordling, the Sweden withdraws from the thirty years war. The Kingdom of France enters the thirty years war on the side of the Protestants.


Scottish revolt against the rule of England.


Charles I., king of England, summons the parliament together, for the first time since 1629. Following the new elections, a majority opposition government is formed. Portugal becomes independent from Spanish rule; end of the personal union, the House of Braganca becomes the ruler. Frederick William I. becomes elector of Brandenburg. During his rule the Marquis of Brandenburg becomes an European power.


Irish revolt against English rule.


The power struggle in England between the Crown and the Parliament becomes a civil war in the Kingdom of England.


Louis XIV., who is only 4 years old, becomes king of France (May 14.). In reality, France is ruled by the regent, Cardinal Mazarin.


The Parliamentary forces, lead by Oliver Cromwell, defeat the Royalist Forces in the Battle of Marston Moor.


The Parliamentary forces have another victory in the Battle of Naseby, in the civil war of England. Aleksey Nikolaeyvitch Romanov becomes czar of Russia.


Charles I., king of England, flees to Scotland.


The Scots hand Charles I. over to the parliament for 400 000 Pounds (January 30.).


Cromwell defeats the Scots in the Battle of Preston (August 17-August 19.). Don Cossacks rise up against the strengthening Polish influence. Fronde revolt against the absolutist rule of Cardinal Mazarin in the Kingdom of France. Peace of Westphalia ends the thirty years war.


Charles I., former king of England, - Scotland, -Ireland, with the consent of the parliament, is executed in England (January 30.). Proclamation of the republic in England.


Cromwell suppresses the Irish revolt.


Parliament passes the Navigation Act (October 9), which ensures privileges for England over the Dutch.


Victory of Absolutism over the Fronde Revolution. Oliver Cromwell is proclaimed Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, he becomes the de facto monarch of England.


End of the First English-Dutch War. The Netherlands is defeated and has to abide to the Navigation Act. Don Cossacks had to swear allegiance to Aleksey, czar of Russia.


In the first northern war, the Swedish occupy the present day southern Sweden from the Danish. Oliver Cromwell dies.


To end the war between the French and the Spanish, started in 1635, the two countries agree to have the Pyrenees mountain range as the border between the two countries.


England becomes a kingdom again; the new king is Charles II.


Louis XIV. becomes king of France after Cardinal Mazarin dies. His financial manager, Jean Colbert, introduces financial reforms (Mercantilism) in the Kingdom of France.


Second English-Dutch War.


London is destroyed in a fire.


French-Spanish War. The French purchase Lille. Ukraine is divided up between the Kingdom of Poland, and the Czardom of Russia.


Revolt of the Don Cossacks against the Russian suppression.


The Turks occupy Crete from the Venetians.


The French occupy Lorraine.


The leader of the Don Cossack revolution, Stepan Razin, is executed in Moscow.


Louis XIV. attacks the Netherlands to acquire its economically important provinces. The Turks occupy Podolia. Third English-Dutch War.


John III. Sobieski is elected as king of Poland.


Aleksey, czar of Russia, dies.


Alsace-Lorraine, which was formerly territory of the Holy Roman Empire, becomes part of the Kingdom of France.


Louis XIV., king of France, occupies Strasbourg.


The Turks successfully siege Vienna.


Foundation of the anti-Turk Saint League.


Through James II., a catholic king becomes ruler of England again. Louis XIV. revokes the Edict of Nantes.


Frederick William I., Elector of Brandenburg, dies. His successor is III. Frederick. The “Glorious Revolution” expels James II., King of England. His successor is William III. During his rule the absolutist kingdom is replaced by a constitutional monarchy, that is dependant on the Parliament. Start of the Nine Years' War, a war between the Holy Roman Empire and the Kingdom of France. Peter I., the Great, becomes czar of Russia. During his rule the Russian Empire becomes a major superpower.


The “Bill of Rights” in England is passed by the Parliament. It becomes the constitution of the constitutional monarchy of England.


Peter I. occupies Azov and Taganrog from the Turks. John III. Sobieski, king of Poland, dies. Frederick Augustus I., becomes elector of Saxony.


Frederick Augustus I. is crowned king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth as Augustus II. Through him the Electorate of Saxony, and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth is unified. Charles XII. becomes king of Sweden. Treaty of Ryswick ends the Nine Years' War.


Peter I., czar of Russia, suppresses the Streltsy Revolt.


Through the death of Charles II., the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs die out. Northern War is started over control of the Baltic Sea; the Russian Czardom and the Kingdom of Denmark attacks the Kingdom of Sweden.


The War of Spanish Succession begins for the vacant Spanish throne. Frederick III., Elector of Brandenburg is crowned king of Prussia under the name of Frederick I.


Huguenot revolt begins in the Kingdom of France.


Peter I., the Great, founds Saint Petersburg.


Frederick Augustus I (Augustus II.) joins the northern war against the Kingdom of Sweden. In the War of Spanish Succession, the English-Austrian armies defeat the French-Bavarian army in the Battle of Hochstadt (September 20.). The English occupy Gibraltar.


Charles XII. defeats Frederick Augustus I (Augustus II.), and forces peace.


The Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland unites as Great Britain.


Turning point in the Great Northern War; Peter I., the Great, destroys the Swedish army.


Thomas Newcomen invents the atmospheric steam engine.


Frederick I., Elector of Brandenburg and King of Prussia, dies. His successor is Frederick William I. The Treaty of Utrecht ends the War of Spanish Succession. The Pragmatic Sanction (Pragmatica Sanctio) ensures female succession of the Habsburgs in the event of the lack of a male heir. The Kingdom of Prussia joins the anti-Swedish alliance of Great Northern War. Victor Amadeus II., ruler of the Duchy of Savoy, becomes king of Sicily.


Based on the Treaty of Utrecht (1913), the Kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire sign the Peace of Rastatt. End of the War of Spanish Succession. The Turkish occupy Morea from the Venetians. Through George I., the Hanover family becomes ruler of England.


Louis XIV., king of France, dies. His successor is Louis XV. When he is still a minor, Philip, of Orleans, is the regent.


The first free Masonic lodge is founded in London. Prince Eugene of Savoy occupies Belgrade, which previously had been a Turkish territory.


Charles XII., king of Sweden, dies during his Norwegian military campaign.


The Kingdom of Sweden signs separate peace treaties with the participating countries of the Great Northern War.


The Russian-Swedish peace; Treaty of Nystadt ends the Great Northern War. The Kingdom of Sweden is forced to give up its hegemony in the Baltics, and to hand it over to Russia.


Frederick Augustus I (Augustus II.), Elector of Saxony, and king of Poland, dies. His successor, Frederick II. isn’t acknowledged by Poland, so they elect Stanislaw Leszczynski to be the new king. Beginning of the War of Polish Succession.


Abraham Derby invents the process melting iron using coke. Beginning of Russian-Turkish War.


The Habsburg Empire joins Russia against Turkey.


End of the War of Polish Succession. Frederick Augustus II., Elector of Saxony, is acknowledged as king of Poland under the name of Augustus III.


In the Treaty of Belgrade, which ended the Russian-Turkish War, the Habsburg Empire looses its conquers of the Balkans in 1718.


Frederick William I., King of Prussia, dies. He created the most equipped and best organized army of Europe of the era. His successor is Frederick II., the Great. According to the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, Maria Theresa becomes queen of the Habsburg Empire. Frederick II., the Great, also claims the Habsburg throne, and attacks Silesia. Beginning of the War of Austrian Succession. Elector of Bavaria, Charles Albert, is elected as Holy Roman Emperor and assumes the title as Charles VII.


Prussia occupies Silesia.


Francis from Lotharingia is elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire as Francis I.


The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (October 18.) ends the Austrian War of Succession. Frederick II. Of Prussia acknowledges the female successor (Maria Theresa) of the Habsburg Empire, however, Silesia becomes part of Prussia.


Maria Theresa, queen of Austria, and Louis XV., king of France, ally. Frederick II., the Great, invades the Electorate of Saxony. Beginning of the Seven Years’ War.


The Prussians are defeated by the Russian-Austrian.


Russian and Austrian troops occupy Berlin, Capital of Prussia. Formation of the Council of State (Staatsrath) in the Habsburg Empire, composed of the state chancellor, three members of the high nobility and three knights, The Council of State was a committee of experienced people who advised Maria Theresa.


Catherine II., the Great, becomes Empress of Russia.


End of the Seven Years’ War. The Treaty of Hubertusburg reinstates the status quo of 1756. The Kingdom of Prussia becomes a superpower.


Frederick Augustus II., Elector of Saxony, who is also Augustus III., King of Poland, dies. End of the Saxon-Polish personal union. James Hargreaves makes the first sewing machine (called spinning jenny).


Francis I., of Lotharingia, Holy Roman Emperor, dies. His successor is Joseph II.


Lotharingia becomes part of the Kingdom of France.


The Turkish declare war against Russian Empire. The Republic of Genoa sells Corsica to the Kingdom of France.


James Watt patients for the first steam engine.


The Turkish fleet is suffers a decisive defeat from the Russian fleet in the Battle of Chesma (July 5.-7.).


The first automated spinning wheel by Richard Arkwright.


The first partition of the Kingdom of Poland.


Pope Clement XIV. bans the Jesuit Order. The Don Cossacks rise up (revolt is lead by Yemelyan Pugachev), against the absolutist rule of Catherine II., the Great, empress of Russia.


Louis XV., king of France, dies of smallpox. His successor is Louis XVI. The Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca (July 21.) ends the Russo-Turkish War. The Turks are forced to hand over lands on the shore of the Black Sea. The Pugachev revolt is suppressed.


Great Britain attacks the Kingdom of France, because of the alliance between France and the United States of America. War of Bavarian Succession between the Prussians and the Austrians.


Treaty of Teschen (May), the War of Bavarian Succession ends. Samuel Crompton constructs his spinning mule.


Maria Theresa, Archduchess of Austria, Czech and Hungarian queen, dies. Her successor is Joseph II.


The Russian Empire annexes the Crimean Peninsula. Henry Cort patents the puddling process to refine iron ore. First flight of the Montgolfier Brothers with the hot air baloon.


Edmund Cartwright builds his automatic power loom, a loom powered by a line shaft.


Frederick II., the Great, King of Prussia, dies. During his rule the Kingdom of Prussia became a major European power.


War begins between the Russian Empire and the Turkish Empire.


Louis XVI, king of France, summons the Estates-General of 1789; this is the first general assembly representing the French estates of the realm since 1614, consisting of the nobility, the Church, and the common people. At the third meeting they declare themselves as a National Assembly, an assembly not of the estates, but of the people. The siege of Bastille marks the beginning of the French Revolution. The National Assembly passes the “Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen” (August 26.), which becomes the fundamental document of the French Revolution.


Joseph II., Holy Roman Emperor, dies. He is succeeded by Leopold II. Belgium eclares its independence.


Louis XVI., king of France, makes an unsuccessful attempt to escape from the revolution. In the Declaration of Pillnitz, the Austrians and the Prussians threaten a military intervention against the French revolution. The Kingdom of France becomes a constitutional monarchy.


According to the Treaty of Jassy (January 9) ending the Russo-Turkish war, the Russian Empire occupies additional lands on the shore of the Black Sea. The French declare war on the Habsburg Empire. The First War of the Coalition begins, in which the Kingdom of Prussia also gets involved against the French revolution. Siege of the Tuileries; second phase of the French Revolution begins. The French defeat the Austrian-Prussian coalition forces In the Battle of Valmy. The National Assembly is replaced by the elected National Convent. Louis XVI. is dethroned, and the first Republic of France is declared (September 22.). Leopold II., Holy Roman Emperor, dies. His successor is Francis II.


Louis XVI., king of France, is executed. Counterrevolution breaks out in the province of Vandee. The Girondist rule is replaced by the Jacobin dictatorship. Second partition of the Kingdom of Poland.


Kosciuszko Uprising (lead by Tadeusz Kosciuszko), in Warsaw, against the suppression of the Czardom of Russia. The French revolutionary troops defeat the Austrians in the Battle of Fleurus (June 26). Fall of the Jacobin Dictatorship.


The revolt of the radical Jacobins is suppressed in Paris; end of the French revolution. The French Republic and the Kingdom of Prussia ends the War of the Coalition with Peace of Basel. The French occupy the Netherlands, and declare the Republic of Batavia. Anew constitution in the Republic of France is passed. Royal revolt breaks out, which is suppressed by Bonaparte Napoleon. The top government body is the directorium. Third partition of the Kingdom of Poland. The state of Poland disappears from maps for the next 125 years.


Napoleon is appointed as the general of the troops. He defeats the Austrians and occupies northern Italy. Catherine II. The Great, czar of Russia, dies.


The Peace Treaty of Campo Formio ends the first War of the Coalition. The Republic of Venice ceases to exist. The Habsburg Empire occupies Venice, Istria, and Dalmatia. The Habsburg Empire hands over the Netherlands and Italy to France.


The French occupy Switzerland, and the Papal State. Napoleon’s war in Egypt begins to weaken the dominance of England at the Mediterranean Sea. On the way to Egypt the French occupy Malta. According to the decisions of the Second Congress of Rastatt, the Holy Roman Empire hands over territories on the right side of the Rhine River to the France.


The French declare war on the Habsburg Empire. The War of the Second Coalition begins. The coalition troops achieve considerable successes in Southern Germany and in Italy. Napoleon overthrows the Directory, and introduces a military dictatorship: Bonaparte Napoleon seizes power.


Napoleon enters Italy, and defeats the Austrians in Montenegro. The Austrians are defeated by the French near Munich.


With the union of Great-Britain and Ireland, United Kingdom is formed. The French and the Austrians make Peace in Luneville (February 9.). Alexander I. becomes czar of Russia. Napoleon enforces a Concordat of 1801 on the Papacy.


The Republic of France and Great-Britain sign the Treaty of Amiens. This marks the end of the second coalition war. Napoleon has himself named consul for life. By becoming emperor, not king of France Napoleon I. founds the hereditary Napoleonic Dynasty.


The Holy Roman Empire’s territory is reorganized. A new war is started between France and Great Britain.


The civil law, called Code Civil, is introduced in France. Napoleon crowns himself Hereditary Emperor. First Serbian Uprising against the Ottoman Empire. Francis I. has himself named Emperor of Austria.


War of the Third Coalition against the French Empire. The Austrians are defeated at Ulm by the French. The British defeat the French-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar. In the Battle of Three Emperors, at Austerlitz, the French defeat the Austrian-Russian army. The Kingdom of Prussia allies with the French Empire. The Peace Treaty of Bratislava ends the War of the Third Coalition. Venice, Istria, and Dalmatia becomes part of the Kingdom of Italy.


Foundation of the Confederation of the Rhine with the participation of 16 states, which is a protectorate of Napoleon. Francis I. resigns from the title of Holy Roman Empire; the Holy Roman Empire ceases to exist. The fourth coalition war begins. In the Battle of Jena-Auerstadt the Prussian-Saxon army is defeated by the French. Napoleon enters Berlin, where he announces the continental blockade against Great-Britain. Russian troops occupy the principalities along the Danube River. In retaliation, the Turkish Empire declares war against the Russian Empire. The Serbian rebels occupy Belgrade from the Turks.


Napoleon occupies Warsaw. Undecided battle between the French and the Russians at Eylau. Napoleon defeats the Russians at Friedland (June 17.). The War of the Fourth Coalition ends with the Treaty of Tilsit. The British occupy Copenhagen. The French troops enter Lisbon.


French troops invade the Kingdom of Spain, where a revolution breaks out against the French. The British occupy Lisbon from the French.


War of the Fifth Coalition. The French Empire occupies the Papal State. The French are defeated by the Austrians at Aspern. The French defeat the Austrians in the Battle of Wagram. The Finnish territories become part of the Russian Empire (from the Kingdom of Sweden). With the Treaty of Schonbrunn, the Austrians end their war against Napoleon; the Austrian Empire looses considerable territories.


The French Empire occupies the Netherlands.


The Treaty of Bucharest ends the Russo-Turkish war. The Prut River becomes the border. The French Grande Armee enters the Russian Empire. Napoleon enters Moscow after the victorious Battle of Smolensk and the undecided Battle of Borodino. The bulk of the French army dies during the retreat.


In the Treaty of Kalisz, the Prussian king and the Russian Czar form an alliance against the French. The Kingdom of Prussia declares war on the French Empire. The British defeat the French at Vitoria (June 21.). The Austrians also join the sixth coalition against the French. The Battle of theNations in Liepzig results in the Prussian-Russian-Austrian army defeating Napoleon. The French are forced out of German territories. The Confederation of the Rhine ceases to exist, the Netherlands becomes independent again.


The Danish, who are allied with the French, are forced to hand over the Kingdom of Norway to the Kingdom of Sweden. Coalition troops fight on French territories and occupy Paris. Napoleon is dethroned and is exiled to the island of Elba. Louis XVIII., of the Bourbons, becomes new king of France. The Treaty of Paris ends the Napoleonic Wars. Congress of Vienna is called together to decided the future of Europe.


Napoleon leaves the Island of Elba, and lands in Cannes. The 100 days rule of Napoleon begins. The German Confederation is formed. End of the Congress of Vienna. Napoleon’s army is defeated by the seventh coalition army in the Battle of Waterloo. Napoleon is exiled to the island of Saint Helena. The Second Treaty of Paris is signed. Second Serbian Uprising against te Turkish rule.


The Sultan of the Ottoman Turkish Empire appoints Milos Obrenovic the Prince of the autonomous Serbia. The Turkish Empire stays in Serbia.


At the Congress of Aachen (October 1.).


The Carlsbad Decrees for the suppression of national and liberal movements.


Revolutionary movements in southern Europe. The Congress of Troppau decides to take anti-revolutionary steps.


Greek War of Independence begins. The Congress of Laibach decides to take further anti-revolutionary steps.


The Greek declare independence from the Turkish Empire. The Congress of Verona decides to reinstall the order of Europe.


French troops suppress the liberal movements in the Kingdom of Spain.


Alexander I., Czar of Russia, dies. His successor is Nicholas I., who becomes czar after suppressing the Decembrist Revolt.


The Turkish-Egyptian fleet is defeated in the Battle of Navarino from the French-British-Russian fleet, which supports the Greek independence wars.


The Treaty of Adrianople ends the Russian-Turkish war, which began in the previous year. The Russian Empire acquires additional territories from the Turkish Empire, and significantly increases its influence in the Balkan Peninsula.


End of the Greek Revolution; formation of the independent Greek state. July Revolution in Paris. Louis Philippe, the Citizen King, becomes king of France. Foundation of the independent Kingdom of Belgium. Revolution in Warsaw against Russian rule. The Sultan of the Turkish Empire acknowledges Milos Obrenovic as the hereditary prince of Serbia.


Russian troops suppress the Polish revolution. Revolutionary movements in Italy, and in the Kingdom of France.


During the Hambach Festival, the Germans demand independence and national unity. On the initiation of the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Customs Union (called “Zollverein”) is formed. Civil war breaks out for the empty Spanish throne.


Revolt of the cotton weavers of Lyon (France). Great Britain abolishes slavery in the territory of its colonial empire.


Victoria becomes queen of Great Britain and Ireland.


The Chartists publish their core program, the People’s Charter in Great Britain.


British troops occupy Aden, a seaport city in Yemen.


The Treaty of the Dardanelles forbids the Turkish naval ships to pass through the Dardanelles.


Alexander Karadordevic becomes prince of Serbia.


The Prussian troops suppress the Silesian Weavers’ Revolt.


Seven, Catholic, cantons of Switzerland unite under the name of “Sonderbund”. Famine in Ireland. Beginning of the emigration of masses of Irish people into the United States of America.


The revolution in the Krakow Republic is suppressed by Austrian troops, and the territory of the republic becomes part of the Austrian Empire.


In the Sonderbund War, Sonderbund is defeated and ceases to exist. The Chartist Movement in Great Britain flourishes again.


Revolt breaks out in Palermo and in Naples. Revolutionary movements in the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. The February Revolution ends the monarchy in France; foundation of the second Republic of France. Communist Manifesto is published in London. Revolutionary movements in the German states. The revolutions in Vienna and Berlin are victorious. The Austrians are driven out of Venice. The Kingdom of Sardinia declares war on the Austrian Empire. The Kingdom of Denmark acquires the Duchy of Schleswig, where a revolt breaks out against Denmark. The Austrians suppress the Prague revolt. Workers’ revolt in Paris. In the Battle of Custozza, the Austrians defeat the troops of the Kingdom of Sardinia. New revolt in Vienna. Beginning of the rule of Francis Joseph I., Austrian emperor, and Czech and Hungarian king.Revolution breaks out in Hungary against Habsburg (Austrian) rule (March 15).


Declaration of the republic in Rome. The Austrians defeat the troops of the Kingdom of Sardinia at Novara, and return to the throne in northern Italy. The Frankfurt National Assembly accepts the constitution of the unified German state that is to be created. French troops enter Rome. The forces of the revolutionary movements in Germany are victorious. The Austrian troops suppress the revolution in Venice. Revolution in Hungary is supressed.


The Pope Pius IX., who fled from the revolution in 1848, returns to Rome. The Danish troops defeat the revolutionary forces of Schleswig, and take possession of Schleswig-Holstein. Dresden Conference.


Louis Napoleon, the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, dissolves the National Assembly.


Louis Napoleon has himself crowned Emperor of France, and renames himself Napoleon III.


The Turkish Empire declares war on the Russian Empire; beginning of the Crimean War.


Great Britain and the France enter the Crimean War, siding with the Turkish.


Nicholas I., czar of Russia, dies. His successor is Alexander II. British and French troops occupy Sevastopol, the largest city of the Crimean Peninsula. Francis Joseph I. signs a concordat with the Holy See. Bessemer invents the process of mass production of cheap steal.


The Treaty of Paris ends the Crimean War. The Russian Empire is defeated, and forced to demilitarize the territory around the Black Sea. As a result Alexander II. introduces reforms in the Russian Empire.


Napoleon III. and Cavour, president of Piemont, sign a secret agreement in Plombieres to free Northern Italy. The Obrenovic dynasty becomes the ruler of Serbia.


Personal union between Wallachia and Moldova. War between the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the Austrian Empire. The Kingdom of France enters the war, siding with the Sardinians. The Austrians are defeated at Magenta and Solferino, and loose Lombardy.


A militia, lead by Guiseppe Garibaldi, lands in Sicily; beginning of the unification of Italy. Sardinian troops of Victor Emanuel II. defeat the army of the Papal State. Francis Joseph I issues the October Diploma, which increases the autonomy of the provinces of the empire.


William I. becomes King of Prussia. End of serfdom in the Russian Empire. Francis Joseph I. passes the February Patent, the constitution in all of the Austrian Empire; this strengthens the centralization in the empire. Formation of the Kingdom of Italy; its first king is Victor Emmanuel II.


Wallachia and the Principality of Moldova unite, and form the Principality of Romania. Otto von Bismark becomes president of the Kingdom of Prussia.


Revolt against Russian rule in the Congress Poland. The Saxon and Hanoverian troops, on the behalf of the German Confederation, march into Holstein, which was taken possession of by the Kingdom of Denmark in 1850.


Reforms in the Russian Empire. End of the German-Danish War.


Francis Joseph I. shelves the February Patent.


Beginning of the Austro-Prussian War for German hegemony. The Kingdom of Italy enters the war on the side of Prussia. Prussia defeats Austria in the Battle of Koniggratz. The Peace of Prague rules the dissolution of the German Confederation, and excludes the Austrian Empire from the German Unification. In spite of successes on the Italian front (most notably victory in the Battle of Custozza), the Austrian Empire gives up Venice, which joins the Kingdom of Italy. Communication link between Europe and America is established by laying down the Cable-Gram under the Atlantic Ocean.


Through the dissolution of the German Confederation, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is formed, which is in a personal union with the Netherlands until 1890. The territories north of the Main River unite and are called North German Confederation.


Liberal revolution dethrones Isabel II., queen of Spain.


The Kingdom of Spain becomes a constitutional monarchy.


The French Empire declares war on the Kingdom of Prussia. The First Vatican Council accepts the dogma of the infallibility of the Pope. The French are defeated in the Battle of Sedan by the Prussian troops, and lays down arms. Napoleon III. is imprisoned, and resigns. A revolt breaks out in Paris; declaration of the Third Republic. Italian troops occupy Rome, completing the unification of Italy.


William I., king of Prussia, becomes German Emperor. German states are united under Prussian rule. The London Conference, on Russian pressure, completes the demilitarization of the Black Sea. Victorious revolt breaks out in Paris. The new German imperial constitution comes into effect. By signing the Treaty of Frankfurt, the German-French War ends. Alsace-Lorraine becomes German province. The government troops in Paris, with Prussian help, suppress the Paris Commune.


Cultural war (called Kulturkampf) begins in the German Empire.


King of Spain is overthrown. Spain becomes a republic. Peak of the cultural war in Germany. The German-, Austrian emperor, and the czar of Russia sign the League of Three Emperors.


Military coup reinstitutes the constitutional monarchy of the Bourbons in Spain.


Formation of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SDP), and accepts the Gotha Program. Revolt breaks out against the Turkish rule in Herzegovina and in Bosnia.


Alexander II., czar of Russia, declares war on Turkey. The Narodnik movement in Russia begins to decline.


The Treaty of San Stefano ends the Russian-Turkish war. Turkey acknowledges the independence of the states in the Balkan Peninsula. In the Congress of Berlin, the European powers redraw the map of the Balkan Peninsula. Austria-Hungary occupies Bosnia and Herzegovina. Cyprus becomes a British Crown Colony (formally it remains a territory of Turkey until 1914). Anti-socialist laws are passed in Germany.


Germany and Austria-Hungary sign the Dual Alliance.


Alexander II., czar of Russia, is assassinated. The Principality of Romania becomes a kingdom. Antisemitic (against Jews) pogroms in Southern Russia. Germany, Russia, and the Monarchy of Austria-Hungary sign a secret diplomatic agreement (reconstitution of the League of Three Emperors).


The Principality of Serbia becomes a kingdom. With Italy joining, the Dual Alliance becomes the Triple Alliance.


The Kingdom of Romania joins the Triple Alliance.


Bulgaria occupies Eastern Rumelia, resulting in a war against Serbia. Karl Benz patients the first automobile with internal combustion engine. Heinrich Hertz discovers the radio waives.


The cultural war in Germany ends with a compromise, in which Bismarck tries to suppress the political power of the Catholic Church. End of the Triple Alliance Germany and Russia sign a counter-Reinsurance treaty.


William I., German Emperor, dies. His successor is William II.


Bismarck, chancellor of the Prussian empire, resigns. Germany doesn’t renew the counter-Reinsurance Treaty with Russia. Germany exchanges Zanzibar for Helgoland with Great-Britain. The personal union between Luxembourg and the Netherlands ends.


Pope Leo XIII. publish the social encyclopedia beginning with “Rerum novarum”. Erfurt Program of the Social Democratic Party.


Waive of strikes in Italy. Russia and France sign a secret military agreement against the Trio Alliance.


Dreyfus Lawsuit in France. Michael II. becomes czar of Russia.


William Conrad Roentgen discovers the X-rays (Roentgen Rays).


Conflict between Germany and Great-Britain because of the oppinion of William II. about the Boer War (Kruger Telegram). Henri Becquerel discoveres radioactivity. First modern summer Olympics games in Athens. Revolt on Crete against the Turkish rule.


Greece, supporting the anti-Turkish rule revolution, takes possession of crete. First Zionist Congress in Basel. Marconi receives patient protection on the wireless telegraph.


Greece is forced to retreat from Crete, which receives autonomy from Turkey. In Germany, the first fleet law is passed, which ordains the significant development of the fleet.


First Hague Peace Conference.


Second fleet law is passed in Germany.


First Nobel Prizes in Stockholm (Sweden) and in Oslo (Norway). Victoria, queen of England, and empress of India, dies.


French-Italian agreement about Morocco and Tripoli.


Great Britain and France sign a friendship agreement (called “Entente Cordiale”).


Bloody Sunday in St. Petersburg, Russia. Civil democratic revolution breaks out in Russia. Norwegian-Swedish War of 1905; the resulting Treaty of Moss ends the Swedish-Norwegian union, and Norway becomes an independent nation.


The revolution in Russia is suppressed. Introduction of the general voting rights in Austria. The Anglo-Russian Entente expands the Entente Cordiale to Triple Cordiale; this was formed to counter the Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. second Peace Conference of the Hague.


Balkan Crisis of 1908 by Austria-Hungary annexing Bosnia and Herzegovina.


Revolution overthrows the monarchy in Portugal. Portugal becomes a republic.


The Ottoman Empire (Turkey) is defeated in the First Balkan War, and is pushed out of Europe. Beginning of the Second Balkan War. Bulgaria looses territories gained during the First Balkan War. Peak of the movement for the voting rights of women in Great Britain (Suffragette Movement).


Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria (ie.: heir to the Austrian throne), is assassinated in Sarajevo, Serbia (June 28.). Austria-Hungary sends and ultimatum to Serbia due to the assassination (July 23.). Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia (July 28.). Beginning of World War I. Germany declares war on Russia (August 2.). German troops occupy Luxembourg (August 2.), and the neutral Belgium (August 3.). Germany declares war on France (August 3.). State of war between Germany and Great-Britain begins (August 4.). In the Battle of Tannenberg, the German troops defeat the attacking Russians (August 28-30.). In the Battle of the Marne, the French stop the German advance (September 5-10.). Another German victory over the Russians First Battle of the Masurian Lakes (September 9-14.). In the First Battle of Ypres, the Germans attempt to reach La Manche (October 12-November 11.). Beginning of the trench warfare on the western front. Turkey joins the Central Powers (October 29.). Great-Britain annexes Cyprus (November 5.).


In the Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes , the Germans defeat the Russians again (February 4-22.). The Allied troops attack at the Dardanelles (March 18.). The Central Powers break through the Russian front at Gorlice (May 1-3.). A German submarine torpedoes and sinks the Lusitania passenger ship (May 7.). Italy enters the war in the side of the Allies (May 23.). Beginning of the series of Battle of the Isonzo on the Italian front (June 15.). Zimmerwald Conference of the left socialists (September 5-8.). Allied troops land in the neutral Greece (October 5.). Austrian-Hungarian troops occupy Belgrade (October 9.). Bulgaria joins (October 14.) the Central Powers. The Austrian-Hungarian troops occupy Serbia, Montenegro, and much of Albania (until end of November). The Allied troops retreat (December 10.) from the Dardanelles.


German attack at Verdun (February 21- December 16.). Easter Rising in Dublin against the British rule (April 23-29.). The naval Battle of Jutland (at Skagerrak) (May 31-June 1.) between the British and the Germans is undecided and ends. The Brusilov Offensive breaks through the Austrian-Hungarian front line (June 4.). Allied troops attack by the Somme River (June 24-November 26). Successful Italian advance in the Sixth Battle of the Isonzo (August 4-16.). Romania joins the Allies (August 27.). Franz Joseph I., Austrian, Czech, and Hungarian king, dies (November 21.). His successor is Charles I. Series of attacks of the Allied troops by the Somme River are unsuccessful and end (November 26.). German troops occupy Bucharest (December 6.). Peace offer of the Central Powers (December 12.). The Germans end the siege of Verdun (December 16.). The Allied Powers reject the peace offer (December 30.).


During the Italo-Turkish War, Italy occupies Rhodes and Dodekanisos. New military program is approved in Germany. First Balkan War. Albania declares its independence.


Germany announces the unlimited Submarine War. (January 31.). Victory of the February Revolution (March 12/February 27.) in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Temporary civil government is formed (March 15/March 2.). German troops retreat to the Siegfried Sassoon without fighting (March 16-19.). The Allied troops are unable to force a final decision in the Battle of Arras, and in the second Battle of the Aisne (April-May). The Kerensky Offensive is unsuccessful on the Eastern Front (July 1-15.). The troops the Central Powers break through the Italian front at Caporetto (October 24-November 3.). The October Revolution in Russia. The Bolsheviks overthrow the temporary government and seize power (November 7./October 25.). Peace negotiations (December 22.) begin in Brest-Litovsk between Russia and Germany. Romania signs and armistice (December 9.) with the Central Powers. Russia acknowledges the independence of Finland (December 31.).


Wave of strikes (January) in Germany. The Gregorian Calendar is introduced in the Soviet Russia (February 14./January 31.). Lithuania declares independence (February 16.) from the Soviet Russia. Germany attacks Soviet Russia (February 18.). Estonia declares independence (February 24.) from the Soviet Russia. Foreign troops land in Soviet Russia (from March). The forces of the internal counterrevolutionary resistance, supported by the foreign troops, starts fight against the Bolshevik rule. The Central Powers and Soviet Russia sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 3.). German offensive begins by the Somme River (March 21.), which ends (July 17.) without significant result. The Allies launch a counterattack (July 18.) in the Western Front. The British troops break through the German trenches by Amiens (August 8.). The Western Front collapses. Serbian and French troops launch attacks (September 15.) in the Balkans. Bulgaria signs and armistice (September 30.) with the Allies. The attack launched on the Italian front destroys (October 24.) the troops of the Central Powers. Formation of Czechoslovakia (October 28.). Croatia becomes independent (October 29.) from the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy. Slovakia secedes from the Monarchy (October 30.), and becomes part of Czechoslovakia. Formation of the independent Austria (October 30.). The Austrian-Hungarian military leadership signs the Armistice of Padua (November 3.). Temporary government is formed in Poland (November 7.). The revolution in Germany wins, and I. WILLIAM resigns from the throne (November 9.). Germany signs the First Aarmistice of Compiegne (November 11.); End of World War I. Latvia declares independence (November 11.) from Soviet Russia. Tomas Garrigue Masaryk becomes of President of Czechoslovakia (November 14). Austria becomes a republic (November 17.). Poland declares independence (November 22.). Iceland becomes independent (in personal union with Denmark) (November 30.). Formation of the Serb-Croat-Slovene Kingdom (December 1.).


Spartacist Uprising in Berlin (January 5.). Paris Peace Conference begins (January 18.). The founding Third International Congress (Commitern) is held on March 2-6. in Moscow. Bavarian Republic (April 13-May 3.). The Paris Peace Conference passes the constitution of the League of Nations (April 28.). Germany signs the Treaty of Versailles (June 28.). Declaration of the Soviet Republic of Slovakia (June 16.). The national convention of Germany passes the Weimar Constitution (July 31.). Austria signs the Treaty of Saint-Germain (September 10.). The Allies Powers form an economic blockade against Soviet Russia (October 10.). Bulgaria signs the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine (November 27.).


Coup attempt (March 13.) in Germany, lead by Wolfgang Kapp. Revolutionary movements in Germany (March 19-April 10.). The Polish army attacks Belarus, and Ukraine, and occupies Kiev (May 6.). The Red Army (of Russia) reoccupies Kiev (June 12.), and counter attacks Poland. Troops of the Red Army reaching Warsaw are defeated by the Polish (August 19.). By defeating Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel, the civil war and the intervention in Soviet Russia ends (except for the far east) (November).


The Treaty of Riga ends the Polish-Soviet War (March 18.), and Belarus, and much of Ukraine becomes part of Poland. Completion of the Little Entente (June 7.). Foundation of the National Fascist Party in Italy by Benito Mussolini (November 7.).


Germany and Soviet Russia signs the Treaty of Rapallo (April 16.). King of Italy appoints Benito Mussolini as president of Italy (October 30.). Independent Ireland is declared (December 6.). Formation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Soviet Union (December 30.).


French and Belgian troops enter the Ruhr in Germany (January 11.), under the excuse of the lack of compensation payments of Germany. right wing military coup in Bulgaria (June 9.), which is followed by bloody terror. Military coup in Spain (September 13.). Strikes, revolts in Germany (October-November). Adolf Hitler's coup attempt in Munich (November 9.).


Lenin dies (January 21.) in the Soviet Union. The Dawes Plan re-regulates (August 16.) the compensation of Germany. The French and Belgian troops leave the Ruhr (November 30.).


Mussolini introduces a fascist dictatorship (January 3.) in Italy. The Treaty of Locarno (October 16.) takes the first steps to include Germany into the new power system of Europe.


A non-aggression treaty is signed by Germany and the Soviet Union (April 24.). Two million workers (May 3-10.) strike for 8 hour workdays in Great Britain. Jozef Pilsudski rises to power (May 12.) in Poland through a military coup. Military coup (May 28.) ends the republic in Portugal. Germany becomes a member of the League of Nations (September 9.).


General strike, then re 15 volt (July-16.) in Vienna. Italy and Albania sign a protector treaty (November 22.). Albania practically becomes an Italian protectorate.


Coup ends in Portugal (April 18.). Portugal becomes a republic again. The Kellogg-Briand Pact (August 27.) condemns war, and declares that conflicts must be solved peacefully.


The Lateran Treaty (February 11.) regulates the relationship of the Church and the State in Italy. The first five year war in the Soviet Union is approved (April). The Young Plan (June 7.) eases the fulfillment of the German war compensation. The Serb-Croat-Slovene Kingdom renames itself to Kingdom of Yugoslavia (October 3.). International conference in the Hague about war compensation.


The military dictatorship is overthrown (January 28.) in Spain.


Peak of the Great Depression (first half of the year). Spain becomes a republic (April 12.). Formation of the coalition of the radical far left wing (October 11.) in Germany, called the Harzburg Front. According to the Statute of Westminster (December 11.), many British colonies become independent nations. Formation of the British Commonwealth.


Engelbert Dollfuss becomes Federal Chancellor of Austria (May 20.). Antonio de Oliveira Salazar forms government (July 7.) in Portugal. At the Reichstag elections of Germany, the German National Socialist Workers’ Party (the NAZI party) becomes the largest fraction of the Parliament (July 31.).


Hindenburg, the President of Germany, appoints Adolf Hitler as the chancellor of Germany (January 30.). Burning of the building of the Reichstag (February 27.). suspension of the constitutional rights (February 28.). The Reichstag elections are won by the German National Socialist Workers’ Party (the NAZI party) (March 5.). Germany quits the League of Nations (October 19.).


Armed peasant revolt (February) in Austria. The Balkan Pact is signed (February 9.) in Athens. “Night of the Long Knives” (June 30.) in Germany. National Socialist coup attempt in Austria; Dollfuss, federal chancellor of Austria, is assassinated (July 25.). The Soviet Union becomes member of the League of Nations (September 18.). Alexander I. king of Yugoslavia, and Louis Barthou, foreign minister of France, is assassinated (October 9.) in Marseille, France by Ustase, a far right, ultranationalistic, croatian political movement and party.


As a result of a referendum (March 1.), the Saarland becomes part of Germany. Stresa Conference between England, France, and Italy (April 11-14.) about countering the increasing influence of Germany. Racism laws (Nuremberg Laws) are passed in Germany (September 15.). Tomas Garrigue Masaryk, president of Czechoslovakia, resigns. Edvard Benes is elected as his successor (December 18.).


German troops enter the demilitarized Rhineland (March 7.). The first Popular Front government in France is formed (June 4.). Right wing military coup (July 18.) in Spain against the Popular Front government that won the elections. Beginning of the Civil War in Spain. Formation of the Berlin-Rome Axis (November 1.). Germany and Japan sign the Anti-Comitern Pact (November 25.).


Neville Chamberlain forms government (May 28.) in Great Britain. Mikhail Tukhachevsky and eight of his generals are executed (June 12.). This is the peak of the purging of Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. Italy joins the Anti-Comitern Pact (November 6.).


After German troops enter Austria, Austria is annexed by Germany (“Anschluss”) (March 13.). Fall of the Popular Front government in France (April 12.). According to the Munich Agreement (September 29.) the Sudetenland, hich belongs to Czechoslovakia, becomes part of Germany. Edvard Benes, president of Czechoslovakia, resigns. An autonomous Slovak government is formed, lead by Jozef Tiso, a Christian priest. Antisemitic pogrom in Germany at the Crystal Night, (November 9-10.).


Slovakia becomes an independent nation (March 14.). German troops enter the remaining parts of Czechoslovakia (March 15.). Formation of the Protectorate of Bohemia (western Czech territory) and Moravia (south-eastern Czech territory) (March 16.). The Memelland (south-western Lithuania) becomes part of Germany (March 23.). Right wing rebels (National Front), lead by Francisco Franco, occupy Madrid (March 28.). Ends of the Spanish Civil War in (April 1.) with the victory of the National Front. Germany and the Soviet Union sign a nn-agression teaty, called the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (August 23.). Great Britain and Poland sign a mutual assistance agreement (August 25.). Germany attacks Poland; beginning of World War II. (September 1.). Great Britain and France declare war on Germany (September 3.). The Soviet troops attack the eastern part of Poland (September 17.). Warsaw surrenders to the Germans (September 27.). Poland comes under German-soviet occupation (September 28.). The Soviet Union attacks Finland (November 30.). The Soviet Union is excluded from the League of Nations (December 14.).


End of the Soviet-Finish Winter War (March 12.). Finland is forced to hand territories over to the Soviet Union. German troops occupy Denmark (April 9.), and then Norway (April 9-June 9.). After Chamberlain resigns, Winston Churchill forms government in Great Britain (May 10.). The western offensive of the German troops begin (May 10.). The Netherlands surrender (May 14.). Belgium surrenders (May 28.). Italy joins World War II. on the side of Germany and attacks France (June 10.). German troops occupy Paris (June 14.). Soviet troop occupy the Baltic states (June 14-17.). Germany and France sign the Second Armistice of Compiegne (June 22.). Soviet troops occupy the Romanian territories of Bessarabia, and Northern Bukovina (June 28.). Formation of Vichy France (July 10.). The Germans begin to bomb Germany (August 13.). Germany gives up their plan to land in Great Britain (September 17.). Germany, Italy, and Japan sign the Tripartite Pact (September 27.). Italy attacks Greece (October 28.).


A coup overthrows the government in Yugoslavia (March 27.). The Germans begin their military campaign in the Balkans (April 6.). Formation of the independent Croatia (April 10.). Yugoslavia surrenders (April 17.). Greece surrenders (May 11.). The Germans attack the Soviet Union (June 22.). Germany occupies Minsk (June 28.), Lvov (June 30.), and Riga (July 1.). They encircle Leningrad (September 3-8.). Kiev is occupied (September 19.) by Germany. Beginning of the Battle of Moscow (September 30.). The Germans occupy Odessa. (October 16.). The Crimean Peninsula, with the exception of Sevastopol, is occupied by Germany (October 27.). Soviets launch a counter-attack (December 5.). Great Britain declares war on Japan (December 8.).


Beginning of the NAZI program of the “Final Solution” regarding the Jews (January 20.). With the area bombardment of Lubeck, the bombing of German cities by the British begins (March 28-29.). Germany occupies the Sevastopol (June 4.). Germany occupies Rostov (August 24.). German troops reach the Volga River in the area of Stalingrad (August 24.). German troops reach the Caucasian Mountains (end of August). German troops occupy Vichy France (November 11-27.). Soviet troops surround the German forces, which siege Stalingrad (November 19-22).


Germans begin to retreat from the Caucasian Mountains (January 2.). Soviet forces break through the German forces at Leningrad (January 12-18.). The USA Air Force attacks Germany by day for the first time (January 27.). The remainder of the surrounded troops of Germany at Stalingrad surrender (February 2.). Soviets reoccupy Kursk (February 8.). Soviets reoccupy Rostov (February 14.). Joseph Goebbels, propaganda minister of Germany, announces “Total War” (February 18.). Revolt in the ghetto of Warsaw (April 19-May 16.). Germany ends the submarine war on the Atlantic Ocean (May 24.). Soviets defeat the Germans in the Battle of Kursk (July 5-August 23.). British and American forces land in Sicily (July 10.). The Allied troops occupy Palermo (July 22.). Pietro Badoglio becomes the new prime minister (July 26.). Benito Mussolini, prime minister of Italy, is arrested. Soviet troops free Oryol (August 5.). Soviet Union frees Kharkov (August 23.). The new Italian government signs the armistice (September 3.). Julius Fucik, Czech freedom fighter, is executed by the NAZIs (September 8.). German parachuters free Mussolini (Operation Oak) (September 12.). Mussolini founds a fascist state in Northern Italy. Bryansk is freed (September 17.). Chernigov is freed (September 21.). The Allies occupy Naples (September 30.). Soviet troops occupy Dnepropetrovsk (October 25.). Soviet troops occupy Kiev, Ukraine (November 6.).


Liberation of Leningrad (in Soviet Russia) is completed (January 27.). Soviet troops free Krivoj Rog (February 22.). Soviet troops free Nikolaev and Cernauti (March 28.). Soviet troops free Odessa (April 10.). Soviet troops free Sevastopol (may 9.) and the whole of the Crimean Peninsula (May 12.). The Allies occupy the Monastery of Monte Cassino (May 18.), which has been under siege for months. Allies occupy Rome (June 4.). D-Day in Normandy begins (June 6.). Soviet troops capture Viborg (June 20.), Minsk (July 3.), and Vilnius (July 13.). Unsuccessful assassination attempt against Adolf Hitler (July 20.). D-Day ends (July 24.) with the victory of the Allied forces. Soviets occupy, Brest (July 28.), and Kaunas (August 1.). Revolt in Warsaw against the Germans (August 1.). Allied troops land in southern France (August 15.). Paris and Florence is freed (August 19.). Soviet troops occupy Iasi (in eastern Romania) (August 21.). Romania asks for an Armistice (August 23.), and then switches to the side of the Allies. Soviet troops enter Bucharest (August 31.). The Allies occupy Brussels (September 3.). Armed revolt breaks out (September 9.) in Sofia (in Bulgaria) against the fascist government. Bulgaria switches to the side of the Allies (September 10.). The Germans suppress the Warsaw Uprising (October 2.). Soviet troops free Belgrade (October 20.). The Allies occupy the first major German city, Aachen (October 21.). Last German troops leave Greece (November 2.), and Albania (November 20.). Strasbourg is freed by the Allied troops (November 24.). German resistance begins in the Ardennes Mountains (December 16.).


The German resistance in the Ardennes Mountains is unsuccessful (January 5.). The Soviet army attacks on along the Vistula-Oder (January 12.). The Soviets enter Warsaw (January 17.), and Krakow (January 19.). Fierce fighting in Bosnia-Herzegovina and in Croatia (February). In the Yalta Conference (February 4-11.), the Allies decide on the Soviet Union entering the war on the Japanese Front, and they determine their policies after the war. British and American bombers destroy Dresden (February 13-14.). The western Allies cross the Rhine River (March 24.). Soviet troops occupy Danzig (March 30.). An offensive begins (April 5.) to free northern Italy from Mussolini’s fascist regime. Sarajevo becomes free (April 5.). Soviets occupy Konigsberg (April 9), and Vienna (April 13.). The Ruhrland is occupied by the Allied forces (April 18.). Soviet troops surround Berlin (April 25.). German troops in northern Italy surrender (April 28.). Mussolini is captured and executed (April 28.). Allies occupy Munich (April 30.). Adolf Hitler, and the other NAZI leaders commit suicide in Berlin (April 30.). The Soviet army occupies Berlin (May 2.). The Germany signs the German Instrument of Surrender in Rheims (May 7.). World War II. ends (May 9.). In the Potsdam Conference, the Allies decide on the future of Germany and of Europe. (July 17-August 2.). Winston Churchill is replaced by Clement Attlee as the prime minister of Great Britain (July 27.). The leading government body in Germany is the Allied Control Council, set up by the four occupying powers (August 30.). France establishes an occupational administration at Saarland (August 30.). Charles de Gaulle becomes prime minister of France (November 13.). The Nuremberg Trial begins (November 14.).


Albania becomes a republic (January 11.). Charles de Gaulle resigns (January 20.). Bulgaria becomes a people’s republic (September 15.). Twelve major war criminals are sentenced to death in Nuremberg (September 20.). The constitution of the fourth republic is approved in France (October 13.). Civil war begins in Greece (October 28.).


Left wing victory in the elections in Poland (January 19.). The Allies sign the Treaty of Paris with Italy, Finland, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria. (February 10.). The GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs) is approved (October 30.) in Geneva (in Switzerland) to liberalize global trade. Constitution, which is like that of the Soviet Union, is approved in Bulgaria (December 4.). At Soviet pressure, Michael I. king of Romania, resigns, and Romania becomes a people’s republic (December 30.).


The Allied Control Council in Germany ends its work (March 20.). constitution is approved in people’s democracy, the preliminary step toward socialism, of Czechoslovakia (May 9.). The currency reform leads to the division of Berlin into two (June 21-23.). The Soviets close western Berlin from Western Germany. Beginning of the Berlin blockade (June 24.). Yugoslavia, lead by Josip Broz Tito, attempts to build its own version of communism; Yugoslavia breaks up with the Soviet Union (June 28.).


Formation of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance, or the CMEA, in Moscow (January 25.). Foundation of the NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) (April 4.). Ireland leaves the British Commonwealth (April 18.). Foundation of the European Council in Strasbourg (May 5.). End of the Berlin blockade (May 12.). In the zone occupied by the Soviet Union, the German Democratic Republic (GDR) (East Germany) is founded (October 7.). In Greece, the royalists defeat the communists (October 9.).


The Government of the GDR acknowledges the Oder-Niesse line as the border between East Germany and Poland (July 6.).


Foundation of the European Coal, and Steel Community in Paris by 12 nations. Great Britain and France end the war status with Germany. (July 9-13.). Winston Churchill becomes the prime minister of Great Britain again (October 26.).


Elizabeth II. becomes queen of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (February 6.).


Joseph Stalin, president and leader of the Communist Soviet Union, dies (March 5.). Greenland is granted equal rights to Denmark, as a part of the country (June 5.). Revolution in the GDR (June 17.), which is suppressed by the Soviet troops. The Soviet Union announces (August 20.) that it possesses a hydrogen bomb. Start of the Cold War (primarily between the Soviet Union and the USA.)


The Soviet Union ends the war status with both of the East-, and West Germany. (January 25.). Bulganin replaces Malenkov as the president of the Soviet Union (February 8.). Churchill, prime minister of Great Britain, retires from politics (April 5.). Seven communist countries form sign the Warsaw Pact (May 14.), to counter NATO. The State Treaty of Austria ends the military occupation of Austria. Austria becomes an independent, neutral country (May 15.).


At the XX. Congress of the Soviet Communist Party (February 14-25.), Nikita Khrushchev succeeds Joseph Stalin. General strike and revolt (June 28.) in Poznan (in Poland). Revolution breaks out in Hungary against Soviet Russian Occupation of the country (October 23.) Janos Kadar, secretary in chief (leader) of the Hungarian communist party, declares the revolution to by suppressed in a radio speach (November 4.).


Saarland becomes part of the Federal Republic of Germany, the FRG (Western Germany) (January 1.). Six nations found the European Economic Community (EEC) (March 25.) in Rome. The Soviet Union launches its first satellite, the Sputnik 1 (October 4.). Start of the space race between the Soviet Union and the USA.


The General Assembly of the European Economic Community, the European Parliament holds its statutory meeting in Strasbourg (March19-21.). After Bulganin retires, Nikita Khrushchev becomes the president of the Soviet Union (March 27). Charles de Gaulle becomes prime president of France (May 29.). New constitution is approved in France. Formation of the fifth republic (September 28.) in France. Charles de Gaulle is elected as president of the republic (December 21.).


Six countries in Stockholm found the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) (January 4.), to counter the European Economic Community, the ECC. Ideological dispute between the Soviet Union and China (June 23.). Cyprus becomes independent (August 16.) from Great Britain.


Yuri Gagarin, Soviet Cosmonaut, is the first human in space (April 12.). Kennedy-Khruschev meeting in Vienna (June 3-4.). The Berlin Wall is started to be built (August 13.) to stop the increasing emigration. Joseph Stalin’s corpse is removed from the Mausoleum on the Red Square in Moscow, Soviet Russia (November 1.).


Second Vatican Council begins (October 11.).


Pope John XXIII. dies (June 3.). His successor is Paul VI. The USA, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union sign the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (August 5.). After Konrad Adenauer retires, Ludwig Erhard becomes the Chancellor of Germany (October 16.).


Nikita Khrushchev is removed from power (October 14.). Leonid Brezhnev is appointed as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and Alexei Kosygin as Premier of the Soviet Union.


Winston Churchill dies (January 24.). Nicolea Ceausescu becomes the General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party (March). Second Vatican Council ends (December 8.).


France announces that it withdraws its troops from NATO (March 29.). After Erhard retires, Kurt Georg Kiesinger is elected as the Chancellor of West Germany (December 1.).


Konrad Adenauer, the first chancellor of West Germany, dies (April 19.). Soldiers, lead by Georgios Papadopulos, seize power in Greece (April 21.). Be merging three western European Economic Communities, the European Economic Community is formed (July 1.). Ceausescu, secretary of the Romanian Communist Party, is elected as the President of Romania (December 9.). After Rudi Dutschke, a student leader, is killed, bloody fighting begin in Western Germany (April 1.). Student strikes, riots in France (May.). More than a hundred countries sign the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (July 1.). The military intervention of the Warsaw Pact ends the Czechoslovakian reform attempts, called the Prague Spring (August 20-21.). End of the Salazar regime in Portugal (September 26.). Civil war begins in Northern Ireland between the Catholics and the Protestants (October 5.).


De Gaulle, President of the Republic of France, resigns (April 27.). Willy Brandt becomes president of Western Germany (October 21.).


USA, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union begin talks about the status of Berlin (March 26.). Vienna Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, April 10.). Edward Heath becomes prime minister of Great Britain (June 18.). De Gaulle dies (November 9.). Riots in Poland result in changes in the government (December 20.). Wladyslaw Gomulka resigns, and Edward Gierek becomes secretary of Polish United Workers' Party (the communist party in Poland).


After Walter Ulbricht retires, Erich Honecker becomes the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (the communist party of Eastern Germany) (May 3.).


The number of member countries in the European Community increases to nine (January 22.). Riots in Londonderry (Northern Ireland) leave 13 people dead (January 30.). Northern Ireland is placed under direct administration of Great Britain (March 24.). Richard Nixon, president of the USA, visits Moscow, where he signs the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union (May 26.). Arab terrorists attack Israeli athletes in the Munich Olympics (September 5.).


Talks in Vienna between NATO and the Warsaw Pact about decreasing Army troops (January 31.). The king is dethroned in Greece; declaration of the republic (June 1.). Conference on Security and Cooperation in Helsinki (in Finland) (July 3.). West Germany, and East Germany become member of the United Nations (September 18.).


The military dictatorship is overthrown in Portugal (April 25.). Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, resigns (May 6.). He is succeeded by Helmut Schmidt (May 16.). Greek military officers overthrow Makarios III., president of Cyprus (July 15.). Turkish troops land at the northern part of Cyprus (July 20.). The military government in Greece is overthrown (July 25). Greece quits NATO (August 14.).


The Turkish Federated State of Cyprus is declared on the northern part of the country (February 3.); Rauf Denktas becomes its president. A trial begins against the members of the Baadar-Meinhof terrorist group in Western Germany (May 21.). The final act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Helsinki (Finland), is signed (August 1.). Francisco Franco dies; the Fascist dictatorship in Spain ends (November 5.). Juan Carlos I. is elected king of Spain.


The Eurocommunism, the communist movement in Western Europe, doesn’t acknowledge the leading role of the SKP, the communist party of the Soviet Union, and chooses a different political path (June 30.).


The Popular Front (they are the socialists) and the communists win the general elections in France (March 20.). Free elections in Spain (June 15.).


The Red Brigades, terrorist group, kidnaps, and then kills Aldo Moro, an Italian politician (March 16.). Pope Paul VI. dies. He is succeeded by Karol Jozef Wojtyla, who chooses the name John Paul II. (October 16.).


Margaret Thatcher becomes prime minister of Great Britain (May 4.). Greece joins the European Community (May 28.). Vienna Summit between the Soviet Union and USA (June 15-18.); Second Arms Limitation Treaty is signed.


Josip Broz Tito, president of Yugoslavia dies (May 4.). Series of strikes (June-August) in Poland; Gierek, the secretary of the communist party of Poland, resigns; the Solidarity, a trade union, lead by Lech Walesa, is formed (November).


General Jaruzelski is elected prime minister of Poland (February 11.). Unsuccessful coup attempt in Spain (February 23.). Francois Mitterrand becomes the president of France (May 10.). Assassination against Pope John Paul II., in Rome (May 13.). The government of Poland declares state of emergency (December 13.); the Solidarity becomes illegal.


The social-liberal coalition in West Germany splits; the new government elects Helmut Kohl as Chancellor (October 1.). Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, soviet president, and party leader, dies (November 10.).


Denktas, leader of Turkish Cyprus, declares an independent Turkish state in Northern Cyprus (November 15.).


Konstantin Chernenko is elected as the new secretary (February 13.) of the communist party of the Soviet Union.


The miners’ strike, which began a year before, ends unsuccessfully (March 15.) in Great Britain. After Chernenko dies, Mikhail Gorbachev becomes the new secretary (March 11.) of the party in the Soviet Union. Enver Hoxha, the secretary of the Communist party of Albania, dies; his successor is Ramiz Alia. Portugal and Spain joins the European Community (June 12.). Ronald Reagan, president of the USA, and Mikhail Gorbachev, president of the Soviet Union, meets in Geneva (October 19-20.).


Olof Palme, prime minister of Sweden, is assassinated in Stockholm (February 28.). nuclear power plant melt down (April 26.) in Chernobyl, Ukraine.


A group of the victims of the Stalin regime is rehabilitated (February 4.). Ceausescu, president of Romania, announces forced resettlement program, which would demolish up to 8000 villages (April 29.). Gorbachev-Reagan Summit in Moscow (May 29-June 2.). The treaty to completely disarm all mid-range nuclear rockets, comes into effect. At the presidential election, Francois Mitterrand, prime minister of France, and his Socialist Party, wins (June 12.).


Bloody riots begin (March 23.) in Kosovo, a province of Yugoslavia, because Serbia limited the autonomy of Kosovo. The workers’ union, the Solidarity, is permitted to operate again (April 17.). The opposition has a landslide victory in the election of Poland (June 4.). Tadeusz Mazowiecki, a candidate of Solidarity, becomes prime minister (August 24.). The Hungarian government opens the border for East Germans wanting to emigrate to the West (September 11.). Erich Honecker, leader of the communist party and of the state of Eastern Germany, resigns (October 18.). He is succeeded by Egon Krenz as the general secretary of communist party (he is to become the last leader of the party). Eastern Germany opens its western border, beginning of the fall of the Berlin wall (November 9.). Todor Zhivkov, leader of the Bulgarian communist party, is overthrown (November 10.). The leaders of the communist party in Czechoslovakia resign (November 22.). Egon Krenz, and the leaders of the communist party in Eastern Germany resigns (December 3.). The communist party in Bulgaria gives up the leading role of party (December 11.). The police takes brutal action against the masses striking against the Ceausescu regime in Timisoara (December 16-17.). Beginning of the revolution in Romania. The National Salvation Front Council seizes power (December 22.). Ceausescu, and his wife, is sentenced to death and executed (December 25.). New, temporary, government is formed in Bucharest (December 26.). Vaclav Havel is elected to be the president of Czechoslovakia. (December 29.).


Mikhail Gorbachev is elected (March) to be president of the Soviet Union. Lithuania passes a declaration of independence (March 11.). First free elections in Estern Germany. anti-Hungarian pogrom in Targu Mures results in eight deaths (march 18.). The Latvian government approves the declaration of independence of the republic (May 4.). The Estonian parliament declares Estonia to be independent (May 8). The Congress of Peoples’ Deputies of Russian SFSR (May 16-June 12.) accepts the independence of Russia. Slovenia declares sovereignty (July 2.). Croatia declares independence (July 25.). Bosnia and Herzegovina declares independence (August 1.). Western Germany and eastern Germany are reunified (October 3.). After Margaret Thatcher resigns, John Major becomes prime minister of Great Britain (November 27.). The coalition parties lead by Helmut Kohl win the All-German elections (December 2.). The election in Poland is won by Lech Walesa. Albania permits the formation, and functioning of new parties (December 18.).


End of the Warsaw Pact (April 1.). End of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) (June 28.). Croatia decides on a complete independence in a referendum (May 19.). Boris Yeltsin wins the first elections in Russia (June 17.). The Slovenian Territorial Defense attacks the Yugoslav Peoples’ Army (June 27-July 6.). The Yugoslav Peoples’ Army permanently retreats from Slovenia. Violent clashes between the Croatian National Guard, and the Yugoslav Peoples’ Army and armed Serbian militias (August). Coup attempt against Mikhail Gorbachev (August 18-21.) in Russia. Gorbachev resigns from his position as the secretary of the communist party (August 24.). The communist party ceases to exist (August 29.). Boris Yeltsin acknowledges the independence of the Baltic states (August 31.). The Belorussian (August 24.), and the Moldavian (August 27.) parliament declare independence. Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia declares independence (October-November). Ukraine declares independence. The Russian-, Ukrainian-, and the Belorussian presidents, in Minsk, announce the dissolution of the Soviet Union (December 7.). The three presidents, in Brest, decide the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (December 8.). The rest of the former Soviet states, except for the Baltic states and Armenia, join the CO Commonwealth of Independent States Almaty (in Kazakhstan) (December 21.). Gorbachev resigns from his position as the president (December 25.). The parliament declares the cessation of the Soviet Union (Belavezha Accords) (December 26).


Twelve representatives of the European Community sign the founding document of the European union in Maastricht (February 12.). United Nations (UN) peace keepers arrive to Croatian territories occupied by Serbia (January 12.). Local Serbs in Bosnia declare the Serbian Republic of Bosnia; the president is Radovan Karadzic (March 27.). The Bosnian Serbs, with help of the Yugoslav Peoples’ Army, occupy 70 per cent of Bosnia, and encircle Sarajevo (June 2.). The Serbians open concentration camps, spread of ethnic cleansing. Croatians in Bosnia declare the Croatian Republic of Bosnia, start of the Muslim-Croat Ciwil War (July). Formation of the new Yugoslavia, consisting of Serbia and Montenegro (April 27.). Conflicts between the Czechs and Slovaks in Czech-Slovakia between new arrangement of the state; they decide to split. Vladimir Meciar’s party wins the election in Slovakia, and he become the prime minister (June). Slovakia diverts the Danube River to their own territory to solve the water power plant debate with Hungary (November).


Formation of the Czech Republic, and of Slovakia (from January 1.). Vaclav Havel becomes the prime minister (January) of the Czech Republic. Croatia launches an unexpected offensive to reoccupy its territories occupied by the Serbs (January). A static war begins in Bosnia between the three ethnic groups; ethnic cleansing in the country (August). Vladimir Meciar is reelected as prime minister in Slovakia (October).


Vote of non-confidence in Slovakia, Meciar is overthrown (March 11.). Chechnya starts a war of independence against Russia (First Chechnya War) (June). IRA (Irish Republican Army) suspends the terrorist attacks (August.). Military invasion against the Chechnya capital, Grozny, by Russia begins with 40 000 troops (December 11.).


After the Croatians, the Bosnian Serbs also accept the armistice (January 2.). Grozny is occupied the Russian troops (January 19.). Guerrilla warfare with hostages continues. Schengen Agreement comes into effect among the EU member states (March 26.). According to the Agreement, the border patrol among the member countries signing the Agreement ends, and at the external border controls of the European Union is strengthened. Jaques Chirac wins the French presidential elections (April 23.). The Croatia reoccupies Western Slavonia, Krajina, and a fourth of Bosnia, resulting in the Serbian population fleeing from the area (May, August 4-7.). At the Dayton Peace Accords (in USA), the Bosnians, Croatians, and the Serbs accept the plan, according to which Bosnia and Herzegovina becomes a federation of cantons, divided up in a 51-49 percent between the Bosnian-Croatian-, and the Serbian territories (November 1-20.). Aleksander Kwasniewski is elected as prime minister (November 5-19.) in Poland. The parties fighting in the Balkans sign the Peace treaty in Paris, ending the war. The UN Security Council decides the stationing of international peace keeping forces (IFOR and then SFOR) in Bosnia and Herzegovina to enforce the decisions of the peace treaty (December 14.).


Resolution in Rome about the arrangements between Milosevic (Serbian), Tudjman (Croatian), Izetbegovic (Bosnian) prime ministers (February 18.). End of the four year siege of Sarajevo, and the city is placed in authority of the Serbian government (February 29.). The Bulgarian financial market collapses (May 29.). Boris Yeltsin wins the Russian presidential elections again (June 16-July 3.). Emil Constantinescu wins the Romanian presidential elections.


The government resigns in Albania, after armed riots in southern Albania, following the collapse of a large-scale pyramid scheme (March). Tony Blair wins the elections in Great Britain (May 1.). Slobodan Milosevic is elected president of Yugoslavia (July 15.).


Agreement about ending the Northern Ireland conflict. Both the Irish, and the British approves that Northern Ireland should have its own parliament (April 10-22.). Mikulas Dzurinda wins the elections in Slovakia (September 25-26.). The CDU-CSU, who were in power since 1982, looses the election in Germany (September 27.).


The Euro is introduced in financial accounting (January 1.). Hungary, the Czech Republic and Poland becomes full members of NATO (March 12.). Renewal of the Kosovo crisis after the Racak Massacre. The Yugoslavian army and Serbian militias begin ethnic cleansing of the Albanian population (January 15.). After months of unsuccessful peaceful talks, NATO begins its military attack against Yugoslavia (March 24-June 6.). Belgrade (capital of Yugoslavia) consents to Kosovo being placed under UN administration.


Five Bosnian Croats are sentenced by an UN tribunal for war crimes (January 14.). The constitution of Finland is rewritten (March 1.). Pope John Paul II. apologizes for all past sins of the Catholic Church throughout the ages (March 12). Pope John Paul II. makes the first official visit to Israel as a modern Roman Catholic pontiff (March 21.). Vladimir Putin is elected president of Russia (March 26.). Albania joins the WTO (World Trade Organisation) (September 8.). IMF (International Monetary Fund) and World Bank summit in Prague (in Czech Republic); anti-globalization protest in the city turns violent (September 26.). Slobodan Milosevic, president of Yugoslavia, resigns after widespread protests in Serbia (October 5.).


Slobodan Milosevic, former president of Yugoslavia, surrenders to police special forces (April 1.). Silvio Berlusconi wins the general elections in Italy (May 13.). Russia and China sign the Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation. G8 summit in Genoa (in Italy) (July 20-22.). Kjell Magne Bondevik becomes the new president of Norway (September 10.).


Euro introduced in France, Spain, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Greece, Finland, Luxembourg, Belgium, Austria, Ireland and the Netherlands (January 1.). Trial of Slobodan Milosevic, former Yugoslavian president, begins (February 12.) in The Hague. Old currencies cease to be legal currencies in countries which introduced the Euro (February 28.). Funeral of Queen Elisabeth (April 9) in Westminster Abbey in London. Jacques Chirac is reelected in French presidential elections (May 5.). Pim Fortuyn, Dutch politician, is assassinated (May 6.). Jacques Chirac escapes an assassination attempt (July 14.). Floods along the Danube River hits Central Europe (August). Switzerland joins the United Nations (September 10.). Goran Persson is reelected as president in Sweden (September 15.). Gerhard Schroder is reelected as chancellor in Germany (September 22.). At the NATO summit in Prague, Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia are invited to become member of NATO (November 21.).


Pascal Couchepin becomes president of Switzerland (January 1.). Zoran Dindic, prime minister of Serbia, is assassinated (March 12.). Draft of the European Constitution is revealed (May 26.). G8 Summit in Evian-les-Bains (in France) (June 1.). Corsica refuses an increased autonomy from France at a referendum (July 7.). Convention on the Future of Europe ends and proposes the first European Constitution (July 18.). Estonia approves joining EU in a referendum (September 10.). Sweden rejects adopting the Euro in a referendum (September 14.).


Boris Trajkovski, president of Macedonia, is assassinated (February 26.) in a plane crash near Mostar (in Bosnia and Herzegovina). Terrorist attack in Madrid; rush hour trains bombed simultaneously, and kills 191 people (March 11.). Millions of protesters against terrorism take the cities of Spain. (March 12.). Elections of Spain; new prime minister: Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero (March 14.). Elections in Russia; Vladimir Putin wins again (March 14.). Spanish government announces the withdrawal of 1300 troops from Iraq (March 15.). Pogrom breaks out in Kosovo for two days; 19 deaths, 8000 Serbian homes, over 300 Orthodox monastery and churches burned, businesses, schools damaged (March 17.). Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia joins NATO (the biggest expansion in its history) (March 29.). Entente Cordiale is a hundred years old; Queen Elisabeth II. Of Great Britain visits France (April 5.). Referendum on the Annan Plan for Cyprus about uniting the island; Turkish Cypriots vote in favour, but Greek Cypriots vote against it (April 24.). Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary, Malta and Cyprus join the European Union (the biggest expansion in its history) (May 1.). Chechen terrorists attack a school in Beslan, taking the 1,000-1,500 people in it hostage (mostly children). The terrorists demand the release of imprisoned Chechen rebels and the independence of Chechnya (September 1.). Russian forces end the Baslan crisis; at least 335 people (including 32 of the 40 terrorists) die (September 3.). David Oddsson prime minister of Iceland resigns, after being the prime minister since April 30, 1991 (September 15.). Ukranian elections; Viktor Yanukovych is declared winner, however international election observers express their critisim; large scale riot in KIEV; 12 days later, the Supreme Court annuls the resuls; new poll is scheduled. (November 21.). Tests show that Ukranian presidential candidate, Viktor Yushchenko, was poisoned (December 11.). New elections in Ukraine: Viktor Yushchenko wins (December 26.). Ukrainian transport minister, Heorhiy Kirpa, is found shot dead, in a suspected suicide (December 28.). Viktor Yanukovych, prime minister of Ukraine resigns. (December 31.).


Pope John Paul II. dies. Millions of people visit the Vatican to mourn him (April 2.). The papal conclave elects cardinal Joseph Ratzinger as the new pope, who chooses the name Benedict XVI. (April 19.). Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting opens in Valletta (in Malta) (November 25.).


After a price dispute between Russia and Ukraine, Russia cuts back the amount of natural gas sent through Ukrainian pipes, endangering natural gas supply in Central Europe, most notably at the Balkans. (January 1.). Bird flu virus discovered in Scotland (April 5.). Referendum in Montenegro about independence; majority of votes support the independence (May 21.). Montenegro declares independence from Yugoslavia (June 3.). South Ossetia hold referendum about independence from Georgia (November 12.).


Romania and Bulgaria become join the European Union (January 1.). Russia cuts back on oil supply transport for three days to Poland, Germany, and Ukraine, due to price disputes between Belarus. (June 8.). International Court of Justice rules that Serbia is guilty of failing to prevent genocide in the massacre in Srebrenica (in Bosnia and Herzegovina), but clears it of direct responsibility (February 26.). The prime ministers of Latvia and Russia sign a border treaty between Russia and Latvia (March 27.). Viktor Yushchenko dissolves the Ukrainian parliament during the Second Orange Revolution (April 3.). Russians riot in Tallin (in Estonia) because of the movement of the Bronze Soldier (April 26.). Interior minister, Nicholas Sarkozy wins the French parliamentary elections, succeeding Jacques Chirac (May 6.). Boris Yeltsin, first president of the Republic of Russia dies (April 23.). 22 members of the pro-Basque-independence Batasuna Party are arrested in Spain, due to ties to terrorist group ETA (October 4.). Zasyadko mine disaster in Ukraine kills 101 miners (November 18.). Africa-EU Summit in Lisboa, Portugal; prime ministers of Britain and of the Czech Republic boycott the event due to the presence of the Zimbabwean president, Robert Mugabe (December 8.). UN deadline for a resolution of the Kosovo issue; no international agreement reached (December 10.). Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia join the Schengen treaty (December 21.).


Cyprus and Malta adopt the Euro (January 1.). Largest naval exercise by Russia since the fall of the Soviet Union (January 22.). Kosovo British government passes temporary laws (February 18.), to nationalize the fifth largest mortgage bank (February 22.), due to its financial crisis. Gerdec (in Albania) gun factory explodes killing 30 people; over the next week, Albania, Kosovo, and some surrounding countries support the population with food, blood, etc. (March 15.). Dmitry Medvedev becomes new president of Russia. (May 7.). Irish reject the Treaty of Lisbon at a referendum (June 12.). Ljube Boskovski, former Macedonian interior minister, is acquitted of all charges, by a UN Tribunal accusing him of war crimes (July 10.). Radovan Karadzic is arrested in Serbia, due to charges on war crimes (July 21.). Russia acknowledges Abkhazia and South Ossetia states in GEORGIA as independent countries (August 26.). Icelandic Financial Supervisory Authority takes control of the three largest banks in the country (October 9.). A referendum in Greenland results in majority votes favoring increased autonomy from Denmark (November 25.). Riots in Greece after a 15-year-old boy is shot dead the Greek Police (December 6.). Sark a small island in the Channel Islands in southwestern English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy of, a British Crown Dependency, holds first elections under a new constitutional arrangement, becoming the last European territory to abolish feudalism (December 10.). Switzerland joins the Schengen Agreement (December 12.).


Czech Republic takes over the presidency of the Council of the EU from France (January 1.). Slovakia adopts the Euro (January 1.). Russia shuts off all gas supplies to Europe through Ukraine. Prime Minister Vladimir Putin publicly endorses the move and urges greater international involvement in the energy dispute (January 7.). The Icelandic government and banking system collapse; Prime Minister Geir Haarde immediately resigns. (January 26.). Johanna Sigurdardottir is appointed as the new Prime Minister of Iceland (February 1.). Milan Milutinovic, former Serbian president, is acquitted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia regarding war crimes during the Kosovo War (February 26.). Albania and Croatia becomes part of NATO (April 1.). G-20 summit, involving state leaders in contrast to the usual finance ministers, meets in London; the main focus is an ongoing global financial crisis (April 2.). NATO Summit in Strasbourg, France; Anders Fogh Rasmussen, former Danish Prime Minister, is appointed as the new Secretary General of NATO (April 3-4.). As a step toward total independence from the Kingdom of Denmark, Greenland assumes control over its law enforcement, judicial affairs, and natural resources. Greenlandic becomes the official language (June 21.). Sweden becomes president of EU (July 1.). Iceland's national parliament, votes to pursue joining the EU (July 16.). Second referendum, this time its successful, in Ireland about the Lisbon Treaty (October 2.). The Czech Republic becomes the final member-state of the European Union to sign the Treaty of Lisbon, thereby permitting that document's initiation into European law (November 3.). he Prime Minister of Belgium, Herman Van Rompuy, is designated the first permanent President of the European Council, a position he takes up on 1 December (November 3.). The Treaty of Lisbon comes into force (December 1.). UN Climate Change Conference 2009 in Copenhagen, Denmark (December 7.).


Spain becomes president of the Council of the European Union (January 1.). Lech Kaczynski, president of Poland, and other government officials, die in a plane crash in western Russia; 96 people die (April 10.). Volcanic ash from a volcano eruption in Iceland causes major halts in the air traffic in western Europe (from April 14.). Standard & Poors, credit rating agency, downgrades government bonds of Greece to junk bond; starting a speculation about the bankruptcy of the country, causing a major speculation against the Euro, the pan European currency (April 27.). Euro Zone and the IMF (International Monetary Fund) agree to lend 110 billion Euros of loan to Greece (May 2.). Belgium becomes president of the Council of European Union (takes over from Spain) (July 1.). Finance ministers of the G-20 agree to reform the IMF, and to shift 6 per cent of votes to developing-, and emerging countries. (October 23.).


Historical World Atlas

Cartographia Ltd.

Budapest, Hungary


Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary

G. & C. Merriam Company

Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.A.


The Hutchinson Encyclopedic Dictionary

Random Century Group

London, Melbourne, Sydney, Auckland, Johannesburg


Other Useful Resources on the History of Europe


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