ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel
  • »
  • Education and Science»
  • History & Archaeology

Interesting Facts About The Middles Ages

Updated on March 2, 2012

Remains Of A Castle From The Middle Ages

Remains Of The Front Tower Of Newark Castle by Tancread
Remains Of The Front Tower Of Newark Castle by Tancread

Interesting Facts About The Middles Ages

The Middle Ages, often referred to as medieval, is an era of European history that covers an enormous amount of time starting in the 5th century and continuing through the 16th century.  This was a time that caused humanism to be born in the Italian Renaissance and allowed for the unfolding of Reformation that is usually associated with the transition of Middle Ages into the Renaissance era.

Urbanization of Western and Northern Europe is included in the Middle Ages and there are European countries that owe their traditions, trends and events to this era.  Military outcomes that occurred during this period, made the European political boundaries what they are today.

Also, the term Middle Ages is often synonymously used with the term of Medieval Times however, Middle Ages is used in describing an era of European history.  Non-European countries are considered medieval if that country had a feudal organization present.  Often, the development of sub-Sahara Africa and Japan's pre-Westernization period are referred to as medieval.  Through times, modern historians often fail in trying to correctly fit the history of certain other regions into that of Europe's.

Ancient Warfare From Etrurian/Rome Times Up To High Middle Ages

The Beginning Of The Middle Ages

During the 2nd century, a great territorial extent was achieved by the Roman empire.  During the next two centuries, control slowly declined over Rome's outlying territories.  The Empire was split into Eastern and Western halves by Emperor Diocletian in 285.

Throughout the 4th century, military experience increases at the same time Rome's geographical neighbors were becoming more powerful and restless. Tribes that had, in the past been trading partners or rivals with Rome, sought an entrance into the Empire.  The reforms of Emperor Diocletian created a strengthened army, reformed taxation and a strong government.

The reforms that the Emperor had made bought Rome a bit of time and although Roman power was being maintained by the well equipped and professionally trained armies, these armies were draining the finances of the Roman Empire.  As heated cavalry rose, the Roman military began to lose the previous advantages it had in the past.  The Battle of Andrianpole in 378 by the Gothic lancers destroyed the Roman army leaving the Western Empire of Europe with no defense.  Due to this, a vast number of Germanic tribes traveled into the area.

Roman institutions began to crumble near the turning of the 5th century and as the Roman authority became more vacant in the West, trading networks, cities, literacy and urban development declined.  The only maintained infrastructure and civic functions were by the Christian Church.

Medieval Village

medieval village by teepi
medieval village by teepi

Chapel In The Style Of The Middle Ages

Fuentiduena Chapel at The Cloisters by Tony the Misfit
Fuentiduena Chapel at The Cloisters by Tony the Misfit

Early Middle Ages

The fall of Roman society was devastating.  Merchants and cites lost not only economic benefits but also safe trade and manufacture conditions.  Additionally, the unified culture and decrease in education led to a cease in intellectual development.

Soon it was not safe to carry goods to trade or travel long distances so exportation collapsed.  Major industries and manufacturers seemed to consistently vanish overnight.

New people filled political positions until the 8th century and Germanic tribes divided the Empire into separate regions.  During this time, the areas of the Mediterranean Sea became controlled by Muslims and by the turning of the 8th century, the Western Roman Empire was rural and decentralized.

A primary cultural influence was the Catholic Church.  Arian rulers conquered many Catholic populated areas that provoked a good deal of tension between Catholic hierarchy and Arian kings.

Due to their literacy, Bishops in the Middle Ages were central so they played a very important role in governance.  Monasticism rose in the West determined by ideas and traditions of Syria and Egypt.  The Western Monasticism Rule was written by Saint Benedict in the 6th century and detailed responsibilities of the monks whom were lead by an abott.  The Benedictine Rule rapidly spread across Europe resulting in monasteries and monks having deep political and religious effects on the Middle Ages.

In Aachen, the Charlemagne's court was the heart of a cultural revival often called the “Carolinigan Renaissance”.  An increase in literacy, arts, jurisprudence and architecture had a substantial increase.  Alcuin, an English monk, took the classical Latin education with him to visit Aachen.  This is thought of as an important part of development of the medieval Latin.

At Charlemagne's death, his only adult son, Louis the Pious took over.  He reigned 26 years and during this time there were a number of divisions to the Empire by his sons, resulting in several Civil Wars.  A three year war occurred after his death and ultimately the Carolinigan Empire ended up destroyed that lead 962 into the Holy Roman Empire.

Life In Medieval Europe

High Middle Ages

Urbanization of Europe, intellectual revival and military expansion described the High Middle Ages.  There was an explosive increase in population during this time that caused the towns to fill.  The growing areas were in the center of the continent and by the year 1,200, Paris had a population of 200,000 residents.  Hungary and Poland became new European powers with Hungary being considered the “Gate to Europe” for entrance from Asia.

Islamic philosophy, technology and science became very advanced during this time and Islamic scholars took Roman and Greek traditions and added their own inventions to them.  The decimal system replaced Roman numeral and algebra was born.

Danger accompanied with travel in Europe was reduced resulting in trade growth and by the 11th century, Universities began to establish themselves in highly populated European cities and Cathedrals were constructed across the continent.  From the 12th through the 13th century, there was technological advancement and great improvement made to the clock and ships.

Middle Ages Agricultural Land

Collina d'Oro , Vineyards , Sunflower-fields , Olivetrees, Oak by pizzodisevo
Collina d'Oro , Vineyards , Sunflower-fields , Olivetrees, Oak by pizzodisevo

Late Middle Ages

Agriculture was greatly affected by a change in the climate that caused many famines and the Black Plague to spread through Europe killing half of the population.  Cities were empty, lands unattended to and most of the people that did survive were those that could afford to move away.  During this time the Catholic Church was divided against itself and was sometimes led by three popes at one time.

Royalty rose during this era, partially because they were the few that could afford to survive the famine and disease.  During the 14th century, France and England both became very popular.  A conflict between the two resulted in a war lasting 116 years.  Standing armies were introduced along with new tactics and weapons.  It is said this war played the most significant role in medieval warfare.

The Middle Ages covers a millennium, representing the important rise and falls of European history resulting in the transition to the Renaissance era.

Books On The Middle Ages

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • gramarye profile image

      gramarye 6 years ago from Adelaide - Australia

      Nice hub - I'll read more like this!

    • MedievalCostumes profile image

      MedievalCostumes 7 years ago from San Diego, CA

      Your pictures, videos and information were all great!

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: "https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr"

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)