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Mars Orbiter Mission (Mangalyaan)

Updated on September 6, 2015

Salient Features:

  • Mass – 1340 -3/+0 kg
  • Structures - Aluminum and Composite Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) sandwich construction-modified 1-1 K Bus
  • Solar Panel Drive Mechanism (SPDM), Reflector & Solar panel deployment
  • Bi propellant system (MMH + N2O4) with additional safety and redundancy features for MOl. Propellant mass: 852 kg

Mangalyaan is derived as from Sanskrit words Mangala means mars and Yana means craft(vehicle). It is mostly called as MOM over the India. It is the one of mars orbiter mission which is lunched on 5 November 2013 by ISRO in India. It is the first and successful spacecraft lunched by ISRO in our Asia continent. Investment of this project is sponsored by India Government. It is first and historical event of Indian scientists, leaders, and peoples. It makes history with small investment and it successful on reaching and working on Mars planet, all over world.


Objectives of Mission (MOM):

The First Indian Mission of Mars is the one of main objectives to develop the various technologies for to design, planning, management and operations of an interplanetary Mission. The major objectives of the mission as follows:

Technological objectives:

  • Design and realization of spacecraft around the Mars planet about 300 days
  • Deep space communication, Navigation, Mission Planning and Management.
  • To handle the contingency situations of Incorporate autonomous features.

Scientific objectives:

  • Indigenous scientific instruments to exploitation of Mars surface features, morphology, topology, Mineralogy and martian atmosphere.

Design of Mission Planning(Trajectory)

Mission planning is based on the mission objectives which are defined by ISRO scientists. This mission can be contemplate as a assignation problem. These assignation mission contains three stages or phases to reach the mars.They are

  • Geocentric phase
  • Heliocentric phase
  • Martian phase

Geocentric Phase:

The phase which is at earth(Geo) as center of MOM mission to complete the Geocentric Phase. This is also called as the departure of Spacecraft. The spacecraft of MOM is enters into space at near earth. With spacecraft engine burns with 6 main engines, the space is gradually moves into hyperbolic trajectory to escapes from earth sphere. Influence. It SOI of earth ends at 918347 km from the surface of earth. After that force to moving of MOM is depends sun only. Finally completes the Geocentric phase successfully and further goes to Heliocentric phase.


Heliocentric Phase:

The phase which is done in tangentially process to reach the mars martian atmosphere is called as Heliocentric Phase. It is also called as the Space Trajectory. It leaves earth in tangentially to reach the mars in an angle of 44o approximately of Mars, earth, and sun in relative motions. The time taken to reach the mars is 780 days. It one half of ellipse around to the sun is roughly to fight path, Eventually it intersect the mars at the exact moment of that mars is there too. Finally it completes the Heliocentric phase successfully and further goes to martian phase to reach the atmosphere of mars.


Martian Phase:

The phase which is at mars atmosphere reaches by MOM is called Martian Phase. It is also called as Mars orbital Intersection phase. It travels around the Sphere of influence of Mars is 573473 km in hyperbolic Trajectory. At this time, the closet approach by spacecraft of MOM is called periapsis. Finally it completes the Martian Phase successfully.

MOM Payloads

MOM payloads are defined as the MOM which is work over the Mars planet. The following are the installed in MOM. They are:

  • Lyman alpha Photometer (LAP),
  • Mars color camera (MCC),
  • Methane sensors for Mars (MSM),
  • Mars Exospheric Neutral composition Analyzer (MENCA), and
  • Thermal Infrared Imaging spectrometer (TIS).



Lyman-Alpha-photometer is a device which is used to understand especially loss processes of water from the mars planet. It also known as absorption cell photometer It measures the relative of large quantity deuterium and hydrogen from lyman alpha emission in the Martian atmosphere of Mars planet.


Mars Color Camera (MCC):

Mars Color Camera is a device which is used to monitor the dynamic events and weather surfaces over the martian atmosphere of Mars. It gives tri-color images, composition of Martian surface and information about the surfaces features.It also provides the context information for other science payloads. It also capture the images, information of mars satellites (phobos and Deimos)


Methane Sensor for Mars(MSM):

Methane Sensor for Mars is a device which is installed in MOM for the use of measure the methane capacity in martian atmosphere with PPB accuracy and maps its sources of Mars. The sensor measures the reflected solar radiation for accurate data over the illuminated scene.


Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyzer (MENCA):

Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyzer is a device which is used to study the practical environmental science on Mars planet. Use of the device is a quadruple mass spectrometer capable of analyzing the Neutral composition matter on mars in 300 amu with unit mass of resolution. It heritage of this payload from the CHANCE payloads.


Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer(TIS):

Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer is a device which is installed in MOM for to study the many minerals and soil types have characteristics spectra in TIR region. and we can map the surface composition and Mineralogy of Mars. It can be work in both day and night of Mars. It gives measurement by temperature and emissivity of two physical parameters estimated the thermal emission.

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5 stars for Very nice article



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