ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Mechanism of DNA fingerprinting

Updated on May 31, 2012

DNA fingerprinting

DNA fingerprinting is a technique used to identify individuals who have carried out crimes,for determining relationships,for determining inherited diseases and monitoring bone marrow transplants.DNA of every person has the same chemical structure.The difference is in the arrangement of the base pairs in DNA.The sequence of these base pairs is used to identify whether two given DNA are related to each other.

Mechanism of DNA fingerprinting

Step 1:Extraction of DNA from sample cells

The DNA is located inside the nucleus of the cell.Initially, the DNA has to be separated from the rest of the cellular material in the nucleus.This can be done chemically by using a detergent to wash away extra material from the DNA.Inorder to separate DNA from other cellular materials,alcohol is added.DNA moves to the alcohol layer and thus it is separated.

Step 2:Amplification

Amplification is the process of making copies of DNA.This is done by a technique called polymerase chain reaction.

Step 3:Restriction Digestion

DNA is then cut into sections by using resriction enzymes.Resriction enzyme is an enzyme that is found in bacteria which cuts DNA at specific points.

Step 5:Separation of DNA sequences

In this process,the DNA fragments are separated by using gel electrophoresis.The DNA is poured into a gel,and an electric charge is applied to the cell.DNA has a slight negative charge;therefore the pices of DNA will get attracted towards the positive charge(opposite charges are attracted to each other).The smaller pieces will move quickly than the larger ones.thus the DNA will be separated by size.Further by chemical treatment inside the gel,the DNA is rendered as single stranded.

Step 6:Southern blotting

In this process,the separated DNA sequences are then transferred from gel to a nylon membrane.

Step 7:Hybridisation

In this process,the radioactive DNA probes are attached to specific portions of the DNA fragments.Thereafter,any DNA not attached to the probes is washed off.

Step 8:Exposure to X-ray film

The remaining DNA is then exposed to the X-ray film.The radioactive probes on the DNA are allowed to expose the film,which,when developed reveals a unique pattern of dark and light bands.

DNA extraction
DNA extraction
Southern blotting
Southern blotting

Sample DNA fingerprint

A sample DNA pttern is shown below.The DNA taken from the crime site and the suspects were undergone DNA fingerprinting.From the pattern obtained,you would be able to identify the criminal.


Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image

      Ravi 

      3 years ago

      Very easy and good

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)