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As a Leader and as a Follower
It benefits one to be aware of the kinds of leadership
As a leader
There are several kinds of a leader. One, a leader who shows the way. In that sense, s/he is ahead of the pack and pulls the pack, so to speak. Another kind of a leader is the middle-of- the-road. S/he seeks the average or the consensus or the majority and goes along with it. Still another kind, is the mover. S/he stays at the bottom and pushes, as it were, the pack. Still another kind is the sponsor who builds up a visible leader who carries out the sponsor’s agenda.
There are several kinds of a follower. One, a blind follower who caters to what his leader says. Another is the compromiser who has his/her own agenda and knows that s/he can attain that agenda only when s/he latches onto another person who tolerates the compromiser’s agenda. The leader attains his agenda with help from the compromiser who is capable of usurping power or developing his own power base.
Power is involved in both the leader and follower. The kinds of power are monopolized or shared. Power divides into naked (force), persuasive (convince), executive (power accruing to a president or prime minister), economic (use of moneys or rewards), and priestly (use of faith and magic).A dictator controls naked power, executive, and economic. He seldom uses persuasive and ignores priestly.
The dictator uses persuasive power to mask his brutal regime. That is, a dictator may go to the extent of explaining an issue to diffuse public resistance. But behind his words, he uses naked power to get what he wants. A dictator can only rule if his followers obey as blind followers, and as compromisers
The followers do not resist with the use of arms but don’t obey the edicts of the dictator. An extreme scenario is that all those who resist had been exterminated. Only the blind followers and compromisers have remained. This situation is doomed because the leader will abuse his power and some of the compromisers may usurp power.
For example, Marcos, dictator of the Philippines in late 1960s and early 1980s. Marcos was the “glue” in the words of Blas Ople, former minister of Labor of Marcos. Without Marcos, the ruling clique would usurp power for themselves resulting in mutual elimination. Among the subalterns there evolved alliances. Imelda Marcos allied with Gen. Fabian Ver, chief of staff of the armed forces; Juan Ponce Enrile, minister of national defense, allied with a wing of the armed forces. An opposition party gathered power from the masses and support from a foreign power. Leaders of the masses consolidated their own power with support from the masses. Foreign lenders held the reigns over Marcos.
There was one intervention that had a power of its own. Personal health. Marcos was afflicted with lupus that destroyed both his kidneys. There was another rival in power, held by the group of oppositionists like former Benigno Aquino, Jr. and the religious group, called by the Marxists as clerico-fascists. There was another group, the Marxists-Maoists who had its own army.
Abuse by the dictator was shared by his clique, who belonged in crony-capitalism. It was populated by people close to Marcos who used the money of the people, government budget and resources of government banks in their own business. They put up businesses without any investment; that is, they had zero equity. Crony-capitalism was bound to fail and it was already failing when Marcos’s health was failing. And the Philippine economy was failing.
Foreign investors and lenders, alternative leaders and power grabbers scrambled for power. Marcos underwent kidney transplantations; the doctor who operated on him and his wife were murdered afterwards to keep his operation secret. Political turmoil exacerbated with the murder of an opposition leader, Aquino, Jr. in 1983. Foreign lenders were concerned over the security of their investments. Doubts over the leadership of Marcos were coming to a head when Marcos declared a snap election involving the presidency and vice-presidency only. He was sure to win by hook or by crook. The snap election resulted in Marcos winning; Corazon Aquino, widow of the murdered former senator Aquino, Jr., losing in the vote count. Cory Aquino launched a national boycott short of civil disobedience. Now the compromisers with the capability to grab power jockeyed for position. The United States tried to broker power sharing between Cory and Marcos. Cory did not agree. Juan Ponce Enrile and his coterie of reformers in the armed forces made their move and launched a coup d’etat. Some rebel soldiers were caught; Marcos went after the alleged leaders – Enrile and Gen. Fidel V. Ramos. He ordered their arrest. They took shelter in military camps along EDSA. They sought protection from civilians to stave off arrest by the military. People thronged to EDSA that grew into what is now called People Power.
People power showed to foreign lenders, especially to President Ronald Reagan of the United States, that Marcos could no longer restore order in the Philippines putting at great risks foreign loans. Reagan gave Marcos a short order: “Cut clear. Cut clean,” Meaning, move out of power and don’t disturb the peace (so that we can collect on our loans).
Marcos was flown by US military warplanes to Hawaii, USA, where he was exiled. Cory Aquino was ensconced to the presidency via coup d’etat. (Even if Marcos won by fraud, constitutional means would have been a vote recount to verify that Cory Aquino indeed won). Immediately, France, a lender, recognized Cory Aquino as president of the Philippines. The United States out of diplomatic exigency followed suit. It would not recognize her right away because the USA provided a political sanctuary for Marcos.
The Filipino people welcomed Cory Aquino as their new president. Her regime was able to continue paying back the foreign loans. She requested for a one-year reprieve in loan payment but the lenders did give the Philippines a respite. That is despite the fact that they were party to huge loans that Marcos had taken from them. For example, Pres. Reagan, a Republican, supported the Marcos dictatorship.
From follower to dictator
Hitler started out as a follower, having been a corporal in WWI. After the war, he used persuasive power, haranguing crowds in beer halls about the humiliation of Germany in the Versailles treaty. He acquired a following that even a retired German general joined his group in a bid for an elective position. When Hitler was appointed chancellor he used his executive power. Merchant bankers saw that they could use Hitler to weaken Europe, dislodge the British pound and replace it with the American dollar as the dominant world currency. They financed Hitler to launch WWII. The US emerged as the only source of credit after WWII. It gave out loans through the Marshall plans I and II to shape the economy of Europe that has graduated into the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
From partner to emperor
Gen. Napoleon Bonaparte, a Corsican, was commander of the French army during the French revolution. His brother, Joseph, took him into a ruling triumvirate. Napoleon slowly usurped power until he overpowered his two partners and declared himself king of France. He crowned himself, instead of the tradition of the pope placing the crown on the king's head. There were attempts to assassinate Napoleon. To make such assassination useless, he made himself emperor of France. That way, succession to the throne became hereditary. If Napoleon were assassinated, his closest relative would become emperor. That is why there was Bonaparte III. Napoleon demonstrated the use of power.
Against the current leadership of Margaret Thatcher
There is a kind of leadership that goes against the current exemplified by Margaret Thatcher. This was demonstrated in her opposition to the complete political and economic integration of Europe. That means, one European currency, one Central Bank, one defense system, one economic system, and one environmental policy. Thatcher favored economic integration to a certain extent but she did not want a complete political integration.
Take this scenario of political integration. One of its features is that a country veto is absent. That is, the Parliament of France or Great Britain or the Prime Minister cannot veto a treaty-law enacted by the European Council.The representative appointed by Great Britain to the central government participates in making European treaty-laws. If he has objections to one, he cannot say that these are the objections from the British Parliament or the British Prime Minister. The British representative will have to haggle it out with other parliamentarians of the central government. That is, the British Parliament or the British Prime Minister is cut off from the central government parliament. The implication is that the British people are cut off from the central government parliament. A referendum to get the pulse of the Britishers will not count in the European central government. Thatcher conducted one such referendum to support her position vis-a-vis the central government. She was rebuffed by the central government (Margaret Thatcher's Revolution. 2005).
Integrationist in the British Parliament and in Thatcher's cabinet may have not realized the full implication of their positions. If they did, they have their own agenda that may be detrimental to the British. Britishers who have objections against European central government treaty-laws may seek redress through their Parliament only to find out that even the British Parliament have no power to abrogate any treaty-law.
Another implication is that an appointee, or a cabinet member of Great Britain becomes a de facto law-maker in the European central government. In effect he becomes a senator in the central government. Thatcher stood in the way of this kind of integration. a kind of leadership that favored the people that was anathema to some parliamentarians and cabinet members. This kind of leadership contributed to her ouster as prime minister.
Leadership style of Pres. Jefferson Davis, Confederate States of America
Jefferson Davis was elected provisional president for six years of the South in 1861. Let us grant that he knew the procedure of the entry of any state to the United States and how to withdraw membership from the USA. In fact, the constitution of the South was almost an exact copy of that of USA except for the sovereignty of the state over the federation. Briefly, a state legislature applies for statehood in the USA that the USA congress acts upon and if qualified is admitted as member of USA. A state that wants to withdraw from the USA has its legislature pass upon that withdrawal and files it with the USA congress. That is the constitutional procedure. USA congress may approve or disapprove such application of withdrawal. Not one of the secessionist states of the South passed upon a petiition to withdraw and filed with the USA congress a move to withdraw from the USA. The South as a whole did not pass upon a petition to withdraw from USA either. That is why the South was unconstitutional as far as the USA was concerned. Lincoln referred to it as a "combination."
Pres. Davis was swept away by the secessionist with the hope that secession was a matter of state right and a negotiation with USA could take the place of the constitutional procedure. In fact, after his ascension as president of the South he sent a delegation to Pres. Lincoln. Lincoln refused to meet with this delegation as that would have meant a recognition of the legitimacy of the South. .
During the American civil war, president Davis was his own commander of the South army for almost half of the war's duration; Gen. Robert Lee was commander for almost half also. However, Davis did not give Gen. Lee some free reign in the running the army. Gen. Lee had to ask the approval of Davis to augment his troops with those from different South states. Each state had its own bodyguard, so to speak, with the one commanded by Davis then by Gen. Lee as the overall army of the South. So the forces of the South were divided and dispersed among the South states. The weakness of this set up was demonstrated by Gen. William T. Sherman when he launched his march to the sea destroying each state guard easily until he met the forces of Gen. Johnston, commander of the defense of North and South Carolina. Being engaged with Gen. Sherman, Gen. Johnston could not give reinforcement to the troops of Gen. Lee in Virginia who was immobilized by a siege erected by Gen. Ulysses Grant. Gen Lee surrendered to Gen. Grant ahead of Gen. Johnston's capitulation to Gen. Sherman.
Davis was a graduate of West Point, the military academy (so were the generals of the South and USA). Davis was a national hero for his exploits in the Mexican-American war who was then a colonel. Then he went to politics. However, he was already president and commander in chief of the South army. When the South congress passed a law designed for Gen. Lee to have more elbow room in running the the army. Davis vetoed it.
However, one cannot fault Davis for his belief even in a lost cause. He did not avail of amnesty when the South had been defeated and granted general amnesty by the USA. Gen. Lee availed of it and became a president of a university. Davis was put to jail; he wanted the case of treason against him be tried that never came until his death. President Jimmy Carter pardoned Davis posthumously in 1970s after over 100 years, admitting him back as a citizen of USA.
Leadership style of Lincoln
Lincoln was a lawyer. He was elected president of the USA in 1861, reelected in 1864. He was well aware of the constitutional procedure for statehood in the USA and withdrawal from it. He knew that the secession of the South was unconstitutional; he did not meet with the delegation sent by Pres. Davis of the South. He did not even give a name to the South as that would imply legitimacy to the South.
When Fort Sumter was bombed upon orders by Gen. P..T. Beauregard of the South Lincoln called the military to enforce the laws of USA.
Early on in the American civil war. Gen. Winfield Scott, chief of staff, with help from Gen. McClellan presented a strategy to Lincoln. It was later called Scott's anaconda, designed to envelop the South and constrict it like how the giant snake subdues its prey. Having been schooled in West Point all the generals of USA imbibed the doctrine of "capture territory" advocated by Domini who used to be assistant of Napoleon Bonaparte. So this doctrine was applied in Scott's anaconda, responsible for the failure of Gen. McClellan to defeat Gen. Lee in their first engagement. .
But Lincoln had no faith in "capture territory;" he favored "destroy the army." He must have read the exploits of Gen. Washington and the French expeditionary forces who destroyed the army of Gen. Cornwalis of England during the American revolution.
During times that Lincoln was his own commander-in-fact of the army he was looking for a general who would adopt "destroy the army." He did not find it in Gen. McClellan, neither in Gen. Halleck. He found it in Gen. Grant for the latter's victory in the battle of Siloh. Gen. Halleck objected to the appointment of Gen. Grant as army commander saying that he was one who drank one glass too many. Lincoln reportedly said: if his drink makes him win battles, all the generals should drink it, too, according to Peter Drucker in his book, "The Effective Executive."
Lincoln was more interested in results than in efforts. He capitalized on the strength of his staff. Good at delegation, he gave Gen. Grant plenty of rope. When Gen. Grant showed him his battle plan incorporating "destroy the army" Lincoln reportedly remarked: "Those who cannot hold a leg can help in skinning." Similarly, Gen. Sherman shed off "capture territory" and proceeded to destroy state armies of the South as Gen. Grant engaged the army of Gen. Lee.
Lincoln was compassionate toward the South. He wanted reconciliation and reconstruction should USA win the civil war. Pres. Johnson and Pres. Grant followed through Lincoln's policy after Lincoln's assassination by an actor in the Ford theater.
Leadership style of Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt
FD Roosevelt (Democrat) was elected governor of New York in January 1929. During the campaign he said: "I pledge you, I pledge myself, to a new deal for the American people" (Taylor. D. Franklin D. Roosevelt. 2002). For the unemployed he set up the Temporary Emergency Relief Administration in 1931. That was the first time that government intervened to counter unemployment and alleviate poverty.
FDR was largely responsible for saving the USA from the Great Depression in 1929. He succeeded Pres. Herbert Hoover (Republican) who said that it is not the job of the federal government to give money and create employment for the unemployed. FD Roosevelt's first task, as he saw it, was to restore confidence among the American people. In his first inaugural speech he said: There is nothing to fear except fear itself. His first act as president was declaration of a bank holiday in America. Banks were evaluated as to their trustworthiness then those that passed the test were reopened. He talked to the people through his radio program "fireside chats."The next task for FDR was to solve unemployment. He created so-called alphabet agencies like the Federal Emergency Relief Agency, Public Works Administration and Civilian Conservation Corps. Under the Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA), crops were plowed under to cut down on food production so that farmers would get higher prices for their harvest. Plowed under crops were paid.
An ambitious project was the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) that involved several states. The bill to create it was sponsored by Senator George T. Norris, (Republican). Before FDR the US congress had already passed the bill but Hoover vetoed it. When FDR came in as president Norris filed it again in congress to get its two-third votes to override the presidential veto of Hoover (Norris, G.T. The Fighting Liberal. 1961) FDR signed it into law when he got the re-passed bill.
The US Supreme Court intervened saying the AAA was unconstitutional, so was the NRA. The TVA was also threatened with unconstitutionality. FDR responded by proposing to increase the number of justices of the Supreme Court from 9 to 15. Congress disapproved of this proposal. However, the Supreme Court came around to supporting FDR's projects and did not declare TVA unconstitutional.
FDR depended on a lot of people who could walk, unlike himself who was glued to the wheelchair. He was afflicted with polio before he became governor of New York yet. He had hoped that the warm waters of Warm Springs Georgia could cure his lame legs. He bought the place with law partner Basil O'Connor and turned it into a polio rehabilitation center. When he became president he declared it National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (NFIP) now called March of Dimes. This funded the medical research of Dr. Jonas E. Salk to develop the killed poliovirus vaccine. FDR did not live to benefit from the Salk vaccine; it is doubtful though if it could revive his crippled legs.
FDR assigned some jobs to several of his assistants, each would come to know of having been assigned the same job when they meet in an office that provided data. In a sense, FDR was redundant in his management style. But his primary purpose was to get the correct data. Harold Ickes, secretary of Interior, was a frequent "victim" of redundant assignments. During cabinet meetings sometimes FDR did not use Ickes's data but used those produced by another assistant. Ickes saw it that he was being spanked in public so he filed his resignation. FDR would write him in his presidential notepad saying "I need you Harold." Whereupon, Harold would be mollified (Ickes, H. The Secret Diary of Harold Ickes. 1954).
FDR was also redundant in matters of creating agencies. When he was dissatisfied with the performance of one agency he would create another with the same job. That way he did not have to lay off people but he attained his objectives.
Like Lincoln, FDR focused on the strength of his staff. The invasion of Normandy toward the heart of Germany was being planned. FDR and Winston Churchill, prime minister of Great Britain, met at Casablanca. FDR had a talk with Gen. Eisenhower who was being built up to lead the invasion. Gen. Eisenhower was rumored to have a liaison with his lady driver, Kay Summersby, a British. Gen. Eisenhower did not deny the affair, to which FDR remarked: "I will not be the one to cast the first stone." FDR was alluding to Magdalene of the bible. In fairness to Summersby, Gen. Eisenhower planned to have a divorce with his wife and marry her. But some advisers looking for a political future for the general advised against it. Summersby wrote a book "Beyond Forgetting" about the affair.
FDR came to the aid of Europe from the onslaught of Hitler when he gave lend-lease assistance to England in WWII. When Pearl Harbor was attacked by the Japanese in 1941 he got the nod of US congress to enter WWII. He was among the Big Three (FDR, Churchill, Stalin) who shaped the fate of the world in post WWII. He was elected to four terms as president of USA; the last one he did not complete having died of hemorrhagic stroke in NFIP compound at the young age of 63 owing to smoking.
From follower to president of the USA
Dwight Eisenhower was a graduate of West Point. Gen. Douglas MacArthur took him, still a major, as assistant upon his retirement and sojourn in the Philippines. They both organized the United States Armed Forces in the Far East, designed to meet the expansive tendency of imperial Japan. Dwight became bored and went back to the US coaching football teams of the army. He took advanced courses in military science and was in charge of coming up with war games in his unit. Gen. George Marshall, chief of staff of the US armed forces of FDR came upon his war game involving 500,000 troops that is enough to defend the US. (That is also the size of the trimmed down armed forces of the US today).. Gen. Marshall assigned Dwight, still a major general, to the planning division. He was responsible for planning the invasion of Normandy, France from a base that was to be England. He adopted the strategy of Scott's anaconda; the invading forces stretched over 600 miles driving towards Germany. The Germans tried to breach the constriction net in the Battle of the Bulge to no avail.
The promotion of Gen. Eisenhower jumped over a hundred senior officers. He must be promoted so that his rank would be at level with Field Marshall Bernard Montgomery, the bet of the British, as commander of the invasion of Germany. Montgomery had an objection to Dwight taking command because the latter had not lead a unit in actual combat. To overcome this, Dwight was made as co-commander of the invasion of Sicily that saw the surrender of Italy. Dwight was promoted to Supreme Commander, a rank higher than that of Montgomery's
After the defeat of Hitler's Germany by the Allies, Dwight was assigned as commander of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Then he was nominated by the Republican party for the presidency; he eventually won the election. In domestic affairs, he was responsible for the trans-US highway. His administration was stymied by the anti-communism hullabaloo of Senator McCarthy. Pres. Eisenhower, taking over the Korean War, agreed to a ceasefire and brought home American soldiers in 1953. That way he also got rid of the cause of one of the worst inflation in USA. Towards the end of his term he warned the USA of the threat of the military-industrial complex in his country.
A sponsor leader is exemplified by Hanna, a fruit (pineapple) tycoon, who made presidents like Theodore Roosevelt and Howard H. Taft. Bankers, with the visible leadership of Col. Edward House, made president Woodrow Wilson of the US.
Merchant bankers were the sponsors of Hitler Internationalists were the sponsors of the United States in supporting Chiang Kai-shek during the Chinese civil war against the forces of Mao Tse-tung. The internationalists are the sponsors behind the United Nations, United States, and South Korea in the present crisis in the Korean peninsula.
The master of non-violent civil disobedience, Ghandi, lead the independence movement of India against the British. However, a lot of Indians were murdered in the process.
It benefits a person to be aware of the kinds of leadership and kinds of followers. That results in a more sensitivity to the power that is being used on him, or he is using.