ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Pulp

Updated on February 16, 2017
Pulp fiber
Pulp fiber

Introduction

Cellulose fibers are separated from many different types of plants, trees and recycled paper. These cellulose fibers are converted into lingin fiber materials called pulp. Pulp is mostly used to make many different kinds of papers which are used in everyday life. Paper was earlier made by different substances like reed, flax and other materials which had made paper an expensive commodity. In the nineteenth century German and Canadian inventors started using wood to make pulp. With extensive and rapid development of new ways to make pulp, price for production of paper started decreasing. Pulp is a raw material used worldwide with Canada being the largest producer of pulp in the world. Timber trees like spruce, pine, eucalyptus and birch are good sources to make pulp. The trees are cut into small wooden blocks and the wooden blocks are converted into slim boards which are used as raw materials in a paper mill.

Tree farm
Tree farm

Methods of making pulp

Chemical, mechanical and hybrid methods are used to make pulp. Pulp has constituent fibers made up of cellulose fibers, lignin, and hemicelluloses. Different mechanical methods of making pulp are used according to the availability of resources. In mechanical pulping wood logs are treated with steam to soften them. Woods logs are grounded into thin malleable sheets using stones. Steam is often used in mechanical pulping as it lowers energy requirements of wood pulping.Newspapers, packing paper and card boards are manufactured using mechanical pulping. In thermomechanical method of preparing pulp, wood is heated and mechanically grind to separate individual fibers of wood chips. The fibers are cleaned and lignin is retained which makes them hard. Chemicals and organic compounds are used to treat wood chips and logs before applying thermochemical method which makes fibers easy to refine and use. Lignin disintegrates after chemical exposure of wood chips and cellulose fibers bind to form a better pulping material. The above method is called chemical pulping and most of the pulp is made using this method. Kraft process and Sulphite process are two popular types of chemical pulping methods named after persons who discovered them. Chemial pulping of wood releases many gases which have unpleasant smell and so masks or proper ventilation is used by manufacturers. Waste or outdated newspapers, tissues and rough writing papers are treated with chemicals which remove inks of the waste papers. The chemical treatment of the above mentioned papers makes their fibers free and they are reprocessed to make pulp. The recycling process is used to make a lot of writing and printing papers. Organic compounds and solvents are heated at high temperatures to make pulp called as Organosolv pulping method. Quality of the pulp is measured by brightness, neatness, smoothness and softness of the paper of the pulp. Pulp is produced and then shipped to factories for processing into paper and other usable paper materials. Other forms of pulp like air dried pulp or wet pulp are also made. Paper for day to day use is made out of air dried pulps. In order to make pulp huge number of trees are needed. Efficient management of tree farms becomes necessary so that trees are harvested properly depending on the amount of pulp to be made. However mechanical methods is more efficient method of processing raw materials and creates more pulp. Small chips of wood that are chopped out of trees are used to make pulp. Heartwood and sapwood trees are used to make wood chips. Barks of trees are also used to make pulp. Researchers are studying fiber crops, heat, hemp paper and straw to make pulp. Agricultural pulp is made using fiber crop left overs and is more energy efficient than other forms of pulp.

Paper
Paper

Uses

Pulp is used to make many different types of papers like thin paper sheets for writing, printing and engraving. Thick papers called paper broads are also created using pulp. Paperboard is used to make wrapping paper for packaging materials, making sculptures and other fine arts. Depending on their qualities and textures papers are graded to reflect finesse in the qualities of papers. Nano cellulose is used to make composites and paper and it made using chemical pulp. Pulp is used to make viscose which is extensively used in the textile to manufacture clothes. Chemically treated pulp is used to make personal care products which are use in day to day activities. Agricultural pulp is environment friendly where as pulp made using trees has some adverse effects on the environment. Replanting trees in areas where tree logs have been chopped, decreases the fertility of the soil. Biodiversity of the area also gets effected due to cutting of trees. Soil nutrients are regularly replenished during re-plantation of tree saplings.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)