Renaissance Study Guide
- Erasmus - the most influential Christian humanist, believed Christianity should be a philosophy rather than a religion. Wants to spread an understanding of the philosophy of Jesus and educate in the sources of early Christianity.
- More - an English humanist who wrote Utopia, he was also a devout Christian and he served he King Henry VIII. He was executed by King Henry VIII for refusing to follow the English Reform policies.
- Utopia - written by Thomas More in 1516, it was about an idealistic society in which all items had communal ownership and everyone worked 9 hours a day, Utopia means "nowhere" in Greek which means More didn't believe a perfect society was possible.
- In Praise of Folly - written in 1511 by Erasmus, engaged in humorous criticism of the corrupt practices of society, was especially harsh toward the clergy.
- Pluralism - the practice of holding several church offices simultaneously, was done by high church officials to increase revenue
- Imitation of Christ - written by Thomas à Kempis who said the day of judgment shall not be examined by what we have read, but what we have done; not how well we have spoken, but by how religiously we have lived.
- Johann/John Tetzel - a Dominican who hawked the indulgences in Germany, Slogan was, "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs."
- Diet of Worms - Luther's meeting with Emperor Charles V in which he refused to recant his doctrines, Luther was made an outlaw, his works were to be burned, and he was to be captured and delivered to the emperor because of the Diet of Worms
- Peasant's War - a religious revolt that erupted from dissatisfied, poor, and abused peasant who inflamed by Thomas Muntzer (a pastor and ex-follower of Luther) the peasants pillaged and killed people in monasteries and castles all over the country side. Luther who need the respect of the Lords and Kings wrote a book saying the peasants should be dealt with harshly and with a clear conscience.
- Transubstantiation - a Catholic doctrine that taught that the substance of the bread and wine consumed in the rite is miraculously transformed into the body and blood of Jesus.
- Charles V - the elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, ruled over Spain, Austria, Bohemia, Hungary, the Low Countries, and Naples. Wanted to preserve the unity of the Catholic faith
- Francis I - Charles V biggest rival fought with Charles V in wars called the Habsburg Valois Wars, and these prevented Charles V from focusing on the Lutherans in Germany.
- Suliem the Magnificent - leader of the Ottoman forces, his army killed King Louis of Hungary who was Charles brother-in-law at the Battle of Mohàcs in 1526. He overran most of Hungary and part of Austria, but was finally beaten back in 1529.
- Peace of Augsburg - a treaty made in 1555 that marked the end of the religious warfare, it formally acknowledged the division of Christianity, and gave Lutheranism equal legal standing with Catholicism. It also gave the right for each German ruler to determine the religion of his subjects (but not the right of the subjects to choose their own religion).
- Ulrich Zwingli - a preacher and Christian Humanist who began the Reformation in Switzerland. In a debate against the Catholics, Zwingli won and was able to continue to preach his version of the Gospel.
- Colloquy of Marburg - a conference between the reformed churches of Germany and Switzerland that was held in Marburg to resolve their difference. They agreed on almost everything except whether the body and blood of Christ is literal or symbolic
- Anabaptists - believed that adults should be baptized instead of infants so that people have a choice. Tried to return to the ways of the early Christian Church and held a sort of democracy in which all believers are equal and each church chooses its own minister. Believed all Christians are priests and believed in a complete separate of church and state
- Henry VIII - the king of England who wanted to divorce his wife in order to marry his mistress because his wife had not bore him a son. He needed the pope to have the marriage annulled, but the pope could not. He needed to legitimize his marriage to Anne Boleyn because she was pregnant and the king wanted to have a legitimate child. He breaks away from the church and starts the Anglican church in which he is the highest member and people have to swear their loyalty to him.
- Anne Boleyn - King Henry VIII's mistress who was the lady in waiting to Queen Catherine. She secretly married the king and had his child who much to the king's disappointment was a girl
- Pope Clement VII - the pope at the time when King Henry VIII needed an annulment of his first marriage, but the pope depended on the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V because of the sack of Rome in 1527
- Cardinal Wolsey - The highest ranking English church official and lord chancellor to the king. King Henry VIII relied on him to get the pope to annul the king's marriage, but the pope could not and the inpatient king fired Wolsey in 1529
- Edward VI - the sickly son of King Henry VIII and his third wife who took over for the king after he died at the small age of 9. During his reign officials were able to move the Church of England down a Protestant path.
- Queen Mary - King Henry VIII's first daughter who came to thrown and changed the Church back to a Roman Catholic church with the help of parliament, but this was met with opposition. By the end of her reign England was more Protestant.
- John Calvin - An organizer of the second generation of the Protestant movement. He became the most determined of all the Protestants and had to leave Paris because Protestants were periodically killed.
- Calvinism - closely adhered to the teachings of Luther and believed that by faith alone can humans achieve salvation. Also believed in predestination because of his emphasis on the absolute sovereignty of God.
- Predestination - God has predestined some people to be saved and some people to be damned.
- Catholic Ref. - the reformation of the Catholic Church in a direct attempt to end the spread of Protestantism. The church took the best features of the medieval Church and adjusted them to meet new conditions
- Counter Ref. - is fighting against Protestantism, vs. the Catholic Reformation is an effort to improve the Catholic Church.
- Council of Trent - a council of archbishops, bishops, abbots, and theologians who met in the city of Trent in an attempt to resolve the religious differences created by the Protestant revolt.
- Society of Jesus - a religious order started by St. Ignatius of Loyola who came to be known as the Jesuits. The Jesuits became the chief instrument of the Catholic Reformation.
- Ignatius of Loyola - a Spanish nobleman who was wounded in battle and read books about Jesus and Catholicism while recovering. With this new look on life, Ignatius became a priest and started the Society of Jesus. He also wrote The Spiritual Exercises.
- Francis Xavier - one of the original members of the society of Jesus, he carried the message of Catholic Christianity to the East. He converted tens of thousands of people in India, Malacca, Moluccas, and Japan.
- Pope Paul III - proved to be the turning point of papacy, he was raised in the lap of Renaissance luxury, and he appointed his nephews as cardinals, he also noticed the need for change. He appointed a commissioner to study the condition of the church and he said the main problem is the corruption of the pope and cardinals. He recognized the Jesuits and summoned the Council of Trent.