Solanceae and Liliaceae
Tomato, potato, brinjal, chilly, onion and garlic are some important vegetables which are used in the preparation of almost in every food item. They will provide the tasty, hot, spicy ad delicious diet. For e.g. slices of potato are used in making chips, fruits of tomato in soups, clover of garlic are as spice, bulbs of onion used in curries and the powder of dry fruits of capsicum is used in the preparation of pickles and in coking. People in these days are enjoying at hotels, restaurants and fast food centers by having a good dinner with tasty items like pickles, curries and other delicious food items’ prepared with these vegetables.
These plants are belonging to the families- ‘solanaceae’ and ‘ Liliaceae’. Not only the vegetables some important alkaloids and drugs which have great commercial and medicinal value and that can cure many health problems related to asthma, gastric, heart and for treating piles etc. are also obtained from some of the members of these families.
So let us discuss about the characteristics and economic importance of the members of these families.
According to Bentham and Hooker’s system of classification these families falls under the classes namely the dicotyledonae and monocotyledonae respectively. The monoctyledonae are characterised by adventitious root system, parallel venation, trimerous flowers and a single cotyledon in every seed.
Systematic position of Solanaceae:
The Family: Liliaceae
Tap rootsystem, In solanum tuberos ( Potato ) the stem is underground tuberum
Adventitious roots, stem is bulb, lead bases Allium
Actinomorphic, bisexual, pentamerous and hypogynous, perisistant calyx , Marcescent calyx in solanum and capsicum and accrescent in Physales.
Actinomorphic, Complete bisexual, homochlamydeous trimerous and hypogynous
six stamens, free or epiphyllous
Bicarpellary and syncarpous. Overy is oblique in position. Swollen axile placentation.
Tricarpellary, syncarpous. Overy is superior, Axile placentation.
Berry ( Capsicum, Solanum, Lycopersicon ), Septfragal Capsule ( Datura, Nicotiana )
Berry ( Asparagus ), Loculicidal Capsule ( Lilium )
Capsine, Nicotine, Atropine
Important point of Solanaceae:
1. the petiole commonly shows ad nation with the stem
2. Bicol lateral vascular bundles (Phloem is present on either side of the xylem, separated by cambia) are present in the stem.
3. Venation is parallel but exceptionally reticulate venation in found in smilax.
Important point of Liliaceae:
1. Trees are found in some species. E.g.: Dracaena, Yucca.
2. In Asparagus roots, branches and leaves are modified into fasciculated tuverous roots, cladophylls and scales respectively.
3. Venation is parallel but exceptionally, it is reticulate in smilax.
4. In yucca, aloe leaves are succulent.
5. In smilax stipules, gloriosa leaf apex is modified into Tendrils.
6. In yucca, there is a symbiotic pollination brought about by a specific moth (Pronuba yuccasella).
7. The long stalk like peduncle that emerges from the underground stem as in Allium is described as ‘scape’.
8. Polyembryoni (presence of more than one embryo in a seed is seen) in Allium.
Economic importance of Solanaceae:
Vegetables: solanum tuberosum (stem tubers-potato), barriers of Solnum melagena( fruit brinzal), Lycopersicon (fruit tomato), Capsicum (fruit chilies). The powder of dry fruits of capsicum is used as condiment in the preparation of pickles in cooking.
2. Nicotiana tobacco is a commercial crop. Leaves are used to prepare cigars, cigarettes etc.
3. Medicinal plants: Datura stramonium, Solanum surattense- leaves are useful for curing Asthma.
Atropa belladonna- alkaloid ‘atropine’ is useful in making medicines. Withania somnifera is used as rejuvenating tonic.
4. Ornamental plants: Cestrum nocturnum (Night queen),
Cestrum diurnum (day king).
Economic importance of Liliaceae:
1. Edible: Allium cepa (onion-bulb), allium sativum
(garlic-cloves) and Asparagus (roots).
2. medicinal plants; The bulb of Allium cepa have
bactericidal properties, allium sativum (garlic) cloves are used as spice. It is a good medicine for gastric and heart problems.
Aloe- for treating piles, Smilax- a medicine obtained from roots- ‘Sarasaparilla’, Goloriosa, Scilla, Colchicum etc- Useful drugs.
3. Colchicine- A chemical mutagen is obtained from seeds of Colchicum.
Ornamental plants: gloriosa, Lilium, Asparagus and Dracaens.