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THE GREAT EUROPEAN UNION

Updated on September 28, 2019

INTRODUCTION:- the European Union is a combination of European states that consists of different histories, shares a variety of cultures, political systems and different levels of economies.

MEMBER COUNTRIES:- European union consists of 28 member countries which are as follows:-

1. Austria 2. Belgium 3. Bulgaria 4. Croatia 5. Republic of Cyprus 6. Czech Republic 7. Denmark 8. Estonia 9. Finland 10. France 11. Germany 12. Greece. 13. Hungary 14.treland 15. Italy 16. Latvia 17. Lithuania 18. Luxembourg 19. Malta 20. Netherlands 21. Poland 22. Portugal 23. Romania 24. Slovakia 25. Slovenia 26. Spain 27 Sweden 28. The UK.

HISTORY:- the aim behind the European Union was to end the wars between the neighbor states that happened in the second world war. After the treaty of Rome in 1957, the EU countries had some peace and stopped charging custom duties during the trade between the neighboring countries.

In 1990, a number of treaties were signed to bring all the states closer with peace and so that the continent of Europe can progress and flourish. In 1973, Denmark, Ireland and UK formally joined EU. In 1995, Austria, Finland and Sweden joined the EU. In 2004, 10 more countries joined the EU including Romania and Bulgaria in 2007.

EXIT OF UK FROM EU:- UK has signed an agreement to leave the EU on March 29, 2019. This was a scheduled withdrawal of UK from EU which is postponed until 31 October 2019. BREXIT is called as BRITISH EXIT. This agreement is not yet approved.

PROBLEMS ARISING:-

1. INCREASING LEVEL OF UNEMPLOYMENT:- Increasing levels of unemployment have been affecting almost all the EU member states. Such increasing rate of employment is leading to wastage of resources and decline in productivity of the resources. Loss in investments as well as decline in savings have been noted in this region. Not only this, this will lead towards arising social problems as the growth of the individuals have become stagnant.

2. CLIMATE CHANGE:- change in climate and its adverse effect on the resources and productivity has been faced by the countries all around the globe due to global warming. Severe weather conditions such as extreme summers and extreme winters have jeopardize the system of the economies.

3. ENTRY OF CHINA IN TRADE:- entry of china in trade business all around the world has severely affected the local markets of many countries including EU and its members states. Chinese products have been penetrated in the markets that have declined the demand for local products in the market because of which local business has been shut down in many countries of the EU.

4. ITALY'S ECONOMY IN BAD SHAPE:- though being part of EU union, Italy’s economy has been facing real downfall and is in worse shape these days which has increased the pressure on the entire EU Union .

5. DEBT CRISIS:- not only Greece that is drowning in debts these days, but 5 other countries of EU union have also been facing downfall in economy and increase in debts. Italy and Portugal at the second-highest rate of debts increasing followed by Bulgaria and Luxembourg next in line. Increase in debts is clearing showing the picture that the EU union is under pressure to balance the economies of the member states.

POPULATION OF EU:- The European Union is highly populated with a diversification in cultures and economies. It has a total population of 513.5 million people. Amongst all states, Germany is the most populated state with 82.8 million population whereas Malta has the least population of 0.48 million.

BIRTH RATES:- amongst the 28 member states of EU, Germany has the lowest birth rate of 8.221 births per thousand people per year whereas Ireland has the largest birth rate of 16.876 births per thousand people per year. France stood next with 13.013 births per thousand people per year in the region.

RELIGION:- the EU union states has the diversification in history, cultures, traditions and religion whereas 72% of EU follows Christianity.

SCHENGEN AREA:- The Schengen area includes 22 states out of 28 states which gives the liberty to travelers to travel freely between these states without applying for visa for every single state. Schengen area apart from 22 states of EU, also includes Ireland, Norway, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein which are known- EU countries.

EU COUNTRIES:-

1. AUSTRIA:- the capital of Austria is Vienna. Official language spoken is German in this region. Euro is the currency used in this region. Austria is in the Schengen region and have been the member of Schengen since 1 December 2007. It became the part of European union in 1 January 1999.

2. BELGIUM:- The capital of Belgium is Brussels. Language spoken in this area is German, Dutch and French. Euro is the currency used here. It became the part of Schengen since 26 march 1995. It became part of European Union on 1 January 1999.

3. BULGARIA:- The capital of Bulgaria is Sofia. Bulgarian is the language spoken in this region. Bulgarian Lev is used as a currency here. Bulgaria is still in the process of becoming member of Schengen group. It became member of European Union on 1 January 2007.

4. CROATIA:- The capital of Croatia is Zagreb. Its official language is Croatian. Croatian Kuna is used as an official currency. It has been member of EU since 1 July 2013. It is not a part of Schengen area.

5. CYPRUS:- The capital of Cyprus is Nicosia. Euro is the official currency used in this region. Greek is spoken as a language here. It is the member of EU since 1 January 2008. It is currently in the process of becoming part of Schengen area.

6. CZECHIA:- Prague is the capital of Czech IA. Official language is Czech. Czech koruna is the currency used in this region. It has been part of EU since 1 may 2004. It has been part of Schengen area since 21 December 2007.

7. DENMARK:- Copenhagen is the capital city of Denmark. Danish krone is the currency used and Danish is the language spoken in this region. It is part of EU since 1 January 1973. it has become part of the Schengen area on 25 March 2001.

8. ESTONIA:- Tallinn is the capital city of Estonia. Official language of Estonia is Estonian. It has been part of EU since 1 may 2004. It has become part of Schengen area on 21 December 2007. Euro is the currency used in this region.

9. FINLAND:- The capital city of Finland is Helsinki. Official languages spoken in this area are Finnish and Swedish. It became part of EU since 1 January 1995. It joined the Schengen area on 25 March 2001.

10. FRANCE:- Paris is the capital of France. The language spoken here is French. It has become part of EU in 1 January 1958. It entered into Schengen area on 26 March 1995. Euro is the currency used in this region.

11. GERMANY:- The capital of Germany is Berlin. German is the language spoken in this area and euro is used as a currency. It became a member of the Schengen area on 26 March 1995. It has joined EU in 1 January 1958.

12. GREECE:- Athens is the capital of Greece. Greek is the official language and euro is the official currency used in this region.it is a member of Schengen area since 1 January 2000. It became part of EU in 1 January 1981.

13. HUNGARY:- Budapest is the capital city of Hungary. Hungarian is the official language spoken and Hungarian forint is the official currency of this region. It became part of Schengen area in 21 December 2007. It is a member of EU since 1 may 2004.

14. IRELAND:- The capital city of Ireland is Dublin. Irish and English are the official languages and euro is the official currency. It has opted out from Schengen area. It has been a member of EU since 1 January 1973.

15. ITALY:- Rome is the capital city of Italy. Italian is the official language and euro is the official currency being used in this region. It has been a part of Schengen area since 26 October 1997. it has become part of EU in 1 January 1958.

16. LATVIA:- Riga is the capital city of Latvia. Latvian is the official language and euro is the official currency of this region. It has become a member of Schengen area since 21 December 2007. It has been part of EU since 1 may 2004.

17. LITHUANIA:- Vilnius is the capital city of Lithuania. Lithuanian is the official language and Euro is the official currency used in this region. It became a member of EU in 1 may 2004. It became part of Schengen area on 21 December 2007.

18. LUXEMBOURG:- Official languages spoken in this region are French and German. Euro is the official currency. It became part of the Schengen area on 26 March 1995. It has been a part of EU since 1 January 1958.

19. MALTA:- Valletta is the capital city of Malta. The languages spoken here are Maltese and English. Euro is the official currency. It has been a part of Schengen area since 21 December 2007. It has become a member of EU on 1 may 2004.

20. NETHERLANDS: - Amsterdam is the capital city of Netherlands. Dutch is the official language whereas euro is an official currency. It has been a part of Schengen area since 26 march 1995. It has become part of EU on 1 January 1958.

21. POLAND: - Warsaw is the capital city of Poland. Polish is the language being spoken and polish Zloty is the official currency used in this region. It has been a part of Schengen area since 21 December 2007. It has been a member of EU since 1 May 2004.

22. PORTUGAL: - Lisbon is the capital city of Portugal. Portuguese is the official language and Euro is the official currency in this region. It has become part of Schengen area on 26 March 1995. It has been a member of EU since 1 January 1986.

23. ROMANIA:- Bucharest is the capital city of Romania. Romanian is the official language and Romanian Leu is the official currency of this region. It is currently in process of becoming a member in Schengen area. It has been a member of EU since 1 January 2007.

24. SLOVAKIA:- Bratislava is the capital city of Slovakia .Slovak is the official language and Euro is the official currency being used in this region. It has been a part of Schengen area since 21 December 2007. It has become a member of EU on 1 May 2004.

25. SLOVANIA:- Ljubljana is the capital city of Slovenia . Euro is the currency being used in this region and Slovenian is the official language in this region. It has been a part of Schengen area since 21 December 2007. It has become a member of EU on 1 May 2004.

26. SPAIN:- the capital city of Spain is Madrid. Spanish is the language spoken and Euro is the currency being used in this region. Since 26 March 1995 it has been a part of Schengen area. It has become a member of EU on 1 January 1986.

27. SWEDEN:- Stockholm is the capital city of Sweden. Swedish is the language spoken and Swedish Krona is the official currency of this region. It has been a part of Schengen area since 25 March 2001. It has become a member of EU on 1 January 1995.

28. UNITED KINGDOM:- London is the capital city of UK. English is the language being spoken and pound sterling is the official currency in this region. It has been a member of EU since 1 January 1973. It has negotiated to opt out from Schengen area.

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