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The Bones Of The Human Body.

Updated on April 8, 2016

During Halloween, the skull and crossbones are always seen as a lifeless object because of the way they have been used. For example, the skull and the crossbones has always been used as a danger sign even as a symbol for poison and pirates. Bones are not only alive but also multifunctional.


The skeletal system

Skeletal system consist of bones, ligament, and cartilages that forms the framework and protective shield for softer tissues. The human skeletal consist of 206 bones.
The bones is the most rigid component of the skeletal system. The human bones are different in size and shape but are similar in structure, development, and function. The bones help shape, protect, and support the body structures. They houses tissue that produces blood cell, aid body movement and stores various inorganic salts.
The skeletal system can be divided into two parts.

i) Axial and
ii) An appendicular skeleton.
1) Axial skeleton- This consist the bones and cartilages that support and protect the organs of the head (skull), neck and the trunk.




Bones of the axial skeleton

There are 80 bones making up the axial skeleton, the skull consist of 8 cranial bones and 14 facial bones altogether making up 22 bones in the skull.

Skull bones

The skull consist of 8 cranial bones and 14 facial bones.
The eight cranial bones are one occipital bone, 2 parietal bone, 2 temporal, one ethimoid, one frontal and 1 sphenoid.

The 14 facial bones are 2 zygomatic, 2 maxilla, 1 mandible, 1 vomer, 2 nasal bones, 2 palatine bones, 2 inferior nasal concha and 2 lacrimal bones.






The middle ear bones
The middle ear bones consist of 6 bones and they are:
i) 2 malleus
ii) 2 incus
iii) 2 stapes.

The neck bones
There is only one bone making up the neck bone, which is the hyoid bone.

The trunk is made up of the thoracic cage and the vertebra column.
Bones in the thoracic cage
There are 25 bones in the thoracic cage, which are:
i) 24 ribs and
ii) 1 sternum.



Vertebra column

There are 7 cervical bones, 12 vertebra bones, 5 lumber, 1 sacral and 1 coccyx makes up the vertebra column summing it up 26 bones.








Appendicular skeleton- The appendicular skeleton consist of the upper limbs, lower limbs, and the bones that attaches the limbs to the axial skeleton. The appendicular skeleton can be explained in four parts.
1) Pectoral girdle: The pectoral girdle connects the bones of the appendicular skeleton to the axial skeleton, which are
i) 2 scapular and
ii) 2 clavicle.
2) The upper limbs: The upper limbs are made up of 62 bones, which are 2 humerus, 2 ulna, 2 radius, 16 carpals, 10 metacarpals, and 28 phalanges.

Names of the carpal bones

The carpal bones

a) Scaphoid
b) Lunate
c) Triquetrum
d) Pisiform
e) Trapezium
f) Trapezoid
g) Capitate
h) Hamate
The mnemonic for carpal bones: She loves to pray, try to copy her.


3) Pelvic girdle: this are bone of the hip and it consist two coxal (hip bone). It connects the bone of the lower limbs to the axial skeleton, which are the coccyx and the sacrum.

4) The lower limbs: The lower limbs are made up of 2 femur, 2 tibia, 2 fibula, 2 patella, 14 tarsal bones, 10 metatarsals, and 28 phalanges. Summing up to 60 bones of the lower limbs.



Names of the tarsal bones

a) Calcaneus
b) Talus
c) Navicular
d) Cuboid
e) Lateral cuneiform
f) Intermediate cuneiform
g) Medial cuneiform

Types of bones

There are six types of bones in the human skeleton.
1) Long bone.
2) Short bone.
3) Flat bone.
4) Irregular bone.
5) Sesamoid bone.
6) Sutural bone.

1) Long bone: The long bones are always greater in length than in width. At both end of a long bone is an expanded portion known as an epiphysis, the proximal epiphysis, and the distal epiphysis, which forms a joint with another bone. A long bone also contains a diaphysis (shaft), periosteum, articular cartilage, endosteum, metaphysis, and a medullary cavity.
Examples of a long bone
i. Humerus
ii. Ulna
iii. Radius
iv. Metacarpals
v. Phalanges
vi. Clavicle
vii. Femur
viii. Tibia
ix. Fibular
x. Metatarsals

2) Short bones: Short bones are cubic in shape. Examples are:
i. Carpal bones
ii. Tarsal bones

3) Flat bones: This are two plates of compact bones surrounding spongy bones. Examples are:
i. Occipital
ii. Parietal
iii. Ribs
iv. Scapular
v. Pelvic
vi. Frontal bone

4) Irregular bones: Irregular bones are irregular or complex in shape. Examples are:
i. Sacrum
ii. Coccyx
iii. Vertebrae
IV Calcanei
v. Mandible
vi. Maxilla
vii. Temporal
viii. Ethimoid
ix. Sphenoid
x. Zygomatic
xi. Vomer
xii. Nasal bone
xiii. Palatine and
xiv. Lacrimal bone

5) Sesamoid bone: These bones are small and varies in number from person to person. Sesamoid bones are found in stressed tendon. Example: the patella bone in the knee.
6) Sutural bone: This are small bones found in the sutures of cranial bones.

SUMMARY OF THE HUMAN BONES
There are 206 bones in the adult skeleton.

(click column header to sort results)
BONES  
LOCATION  
NUMBER  
Frontal bone
front of the skull
1
Parietal
each side of the skull
2
Occipital
back of the skull
1
Temporal
each side of the skull
2
Sphenoid
it forms the base of the Cranium, side of the skull and the floor of the orbit
 
Ethimoid
front of the sphenoid bone
1
Maxilla
upper jaw
2
Zygomatic
cheeks
2
Palatine
behind the maxilla
2
Inferior nasal concha
nose
2
Mandible
jaw
2
Lacrimal
middle wall of the orbits
2
Nasal bone
nose
2
Vomer
nose
1
Malleus
middle ear
2
Incus
middle ear
2
Stapes
middle ear
2
Hyoid
neck
1
Cervical
neck
7
Thoracic
back
12
Lumber
back
5
Sacrum
pelvic
1
Coccyx
pelvic
1
Ribs
thorax (chest)
24
Sternum
thorax (chest)
1
Scapula
either side of the back
2
Clavicle
base of the neck (collar)
2
Humerus
forearm
2
Radius
arm
2
Ulna
arm
2
Carpals
wrist
16
Metacarpals
palm
10
Phalanges
finger
28
Coxal bone
waist
2
Femur
thigh
2
Tibia
leg
2
Fibula
leg
2
Patella
knee
2
Tarsal
foot
14
Metatarsal
foot
10
Phalanges
foot
28
 
TOTAL
206 bones

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