The Immune System and Its Cells that Protect the Human Body
The Immune System
The immune system has cells that are specialized in protecting the body against diseases, and invading micro-organisms that are harmful. The immune system contains many cells that fight bacteria, and other invading enemies that find their way into the human body through cuts and scrapes. The immune system contains leukocytes, which are white blood cells, and lymphocytes. B-cells and T-cells are two types of lymphocytes. These two cell types are made in the bone marrow. T-cells start out in the bone marrow, then they migrate to the thymus gland where they mature.
B-lymphocytes are commonly known as B-cells and T-lymphocytes are known as T-cells. B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes can stay in the bone marrow or they can mature into B-cells, or they can migrate to the thymus gland to mature into T-cells. T-cells and B-cells have different and separate functions in the immune system. When antigens invade the body-antigens are disease causing agents, they are detected by several types of cells. The cells in the immune system work together to recognize the antigen, Once the antigen is recognized, it trigger's B-lymphocytes to produce anti-bodies. These anti-bodies have specialized proteins that lock onto specific antigens. The anti-bodies need help in destroying the antigens. They need the help of the T-Cells.
The diagram below is difficult to read, but using a magnifying glass next to the computer screen helps to be able to see the fuzzy and small print.
The Immune System
Helper T-Cells and Killer T-Cells
Helper T-cells help by activating other cells to act, for example: B-cells to produce anti-bodies, whenever there are invading bacteria, or other enemy cells. B-cells can make clones of themselves, and memory cells that remember the antigen that the original B-cell had contact with in the past. The memory cells can act much quicker when and if they ever come in contact with that same antigen the original B-cell had contact with.
Some T-Cells are called Killer T-Cells. Killer T-Cell have toxic chemicals that are toxic to bacteria, and other invaders of the human body. Killer T-cells are highly effective against bacteria, and other harmful agents that find their way into the human body. Bacteria and other foreign invaders can find their way into the human body through various means, for example: cuts, scratches, and abrasions on the skin. Bacteria are always looking for a way to get in, as they are opportunistic. T-cells can also signal phagocytes to act.
In a normal immune system the immune cells should be working normally, but in a compromised immune system they do not. AIDS is a disease that compromises the immune system by destroying the helper T-cells. Cells in the immune system need the helper T-cells to signal to them to activate. Helper T-cells are destroyed, they can not help to activate other immume cells into action against bacteria, and other foreign invaders that find their way into the human body.