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Existential Psychotherapy, Viktor Frankl, and Jean-Paul Sartre - To Clear a Misunderstanding

Updated on June 9, 2017
Viktor Frankl: Groundbreaking psychologist and neurologist. Survivor of Holocaust death-camp.
Viktor Frankl: Groundbreaking psychologist and neurologist. Survivor of Holocaust death-camp.

Being an admirer of the existential tradition in psychology (particularly of the work of Dr. Viktor Frankl), I was eager to see how James Hansell and Lisa Damour, in their widely used textbook Abnormal Psychology, would portray it among the various theoretical perspectives. I suspected that it would be relatively marginalized, and it was; while eight pages were devoted to the biological perspective, six to the psychodynamic, four to the cognitive, and three pages to the behavioral, only a single paragraph was granted to the existential tradition. Although this bothered me, what bothered me far more was the way the perspective was not just marginalized, but marginalized to such an extent that I believe it was seriously misrepresented.

On page sixty-one, the text states that the perspective explains "psychopathology . . .based on [one's] inability to accept responsibility for creating one's own meaning in life." Next, it claims that existential therapies encourage clients "to face this responsibility" (p 61). On page fifty-two, the text lists the theorists who primarily developed the techniques used in existential therapy, listing Dr. Frankl among them. But nowhere is it suggested that Frankl himself (arguably the most important figure in the development of this perspective) would never have encouraged anyone to face the "responsibility" for "creating one's own meaning in life".

The philosophical concept of life's inherent meaninglessness and the resultant need for humans to "create" their own life meanings is indeed found within the existential tradition of Jean-Paul Sartre, but neither is this dogma a quintessential concept of existentialism, nor is Sartre the only important figure in the development of existentialist philosophy (Kierkegaard, for example, presents existentialism much differently). When the text, however, refers on page fifty-two to the "existential tradition" from which existential psychology draws, it cites only Sartre.

When Hansell and Damour overgeneralize existential therapy as encouraging people to be responsible for creating their own meanings, perhaps they rely too heavily on Sartre's conception of what existential therapy ought to be, found in his (cited by Hansell and Damour) Existential Psychoanalysis (1953). Sartre, however, was neither a psychologist nor a neurologist. Victor Frankl was both. The text's presentation may have been more nuanced if it had considered Frankl's Psychotherapy and Existentialism (1967), which states, "The meaning which a being has to fulfill is something beyond himself . . . only a meaning which is not just an expression of the being itself represents a true challenge" (p 11). Frankl further explains this, in The Unconscious God (1975 Edition):

". . .the 'to what' of all responsibleness must necessarily be prior to the responsibleness itself. What I feel that I ought to do, or ought to be, could never be effective if it were nothing but an invention of mine--rather than a discovery. Jean-Paul Sartre believes that man can choose and design himself by creating his own standards. However, to ascribe to the self such a creative power . . . is it not even comparable to the fakir trick? The fakir claims to throw a rope into the air, into the empty space, and claims a boy will climb up the rope. It is not different with Sartre when he tries to make us believe that man "projects" himself . . . into nothingness." (p 58)

I believe (although the scope of this article is far too limited to begin explaining), that therapy based on Sartre's perspective differs from therapy based on Frankl's perspective as night differs from day. If life has no meaning, attempting to discover one's meaning (as Frankl encourages) is an exercise in futility. If life has inherent meaning, any meanings that we merely create (as Sartre suggests) would border on the psychotic. Thus, Hansell and Damour's failure to delineate these radically differing views within the existential therapeutic tradition--one of the views being handed down by (in my opinion) the father of existential therapy--is an oversight that I consider tragic.


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    • profile image 6 years ago

      Very thought provoking post, I enjoyed reading it. I agree that Franl's boooks: mans search for meaning and the Dr. and the soul are two of the best books on my bookshelf, I often refer back to them.

    • aslanlight profile image

      aslanlight 6 years ago from England

      After reading about Sartre's ideas earlier today I felt that he's almost completely missed the point about existence! De Beauvoir certainly challenged him. Though I do like his revolutionary aspect.

      This is a great hub; worth bookmarking for future reference seeing as I'm working on an assignment that includes existential psychotherapy.

    • Vitamin Monkey profile image

      Vitamin Monkey 6 years ago from San Francisco, CA

      quite interesting. i'll have to check out that book.

    • japtaker profile image

      Justin Aptaker 6 years ago from United States

      Thanks to all for your comments so far. And thank you, Sembj, for a particularly articulate and knowledgeable contribution. I agree with you that "Man's Search for Meaning" is a must read. I consider it to be among the most important books ever written. For that reason, I always have at least three copies on hand to give to people who are interested.

      I also agree that Existentialism has deeply affected the Western mind in many ways that aren't overt. I think the nihilistic breed of the philosophy (which, as you said, sadly managed to become the prevalent strain) has informed almost everything in our culture on some level or another. Which is why, to me, Frankl is a beacon of light in the midst of all this existential gloom, demonstrating that Existentialism is not by default a philosophy of hopelessness.

      Again, thanks for bringing up these good points!

    • Sembj profile image

      Sembj 6 years ago

      Interesting article, thanks. I read a fair amount of existential writing at one time and thought Frankl's Man's Search for Meaning magnificent - one of the must reads of the last century. However, while I thought that Logotherapy looked like it had great potential, it was quite disappointing when actual cases of Frankl's from his practice are described. On the other hand, it's quite surprising that existential philosophy seems not to have been developed in the way it could have been. One theory is that so many of the Existentialists tended to be rather gloomy or even pessimistic accounting for the direction it took. Frankl is a lot more positive than most of his fellow Existentialists - and it is no accident that he recognizes this as probably accounting for his survival. I do suspect that many aspects of Existentialism has been absorbed into the minds educated in the West without too much acknowledgmen.

      Must try and stop now but thanks again for your thoughts and reminding me to take another look at some very interesting writers.

    • Stump Parrish profile image

      Stump Parrish 7 years ago from Don't have a clue, I'm lost.

      Well that actually made sense to me, thank you very much. I agree that there are differences in the approaches to therapy. I'm actually quite please with myself in that I was able to offer and intelligent response, lol. Existential Psychopathology actually sounds like some fun reading, thanks for the tip.

    • pennyofheaven profile image

      pennyofheaven 7 years ago from New Zealand

      Sounds like an interesting book! I will seek it out and read it. Revisit with my comments. Thank you