The Second Turkish State Established in Egypt.
What is ihşit, what is its meaning.
Because the Abbasid caliph gave Muhammad the title of Ihshit, he and his family were called with this name, the state established by Muhammad was called the sons of Ihshit, and a title of Iranian origin, meaning Ihshit, servant or shah.
Muhammad's grandfather was a brave member of the ruler family in Fergana, the caliph had invited him by hearing his fame and gave him wide powers, while the reputation of the Turkish commanders at the center of the Abbasid caliph rose greatly.
Tugc, the father of Muhammad, took part in the state of the sons of Tolun, then disagreed with Ahmet at the head of this state, went to the governor of Mosul, returned to Egypt after Ahmet's death, this time entered the command of Humureveyh, was appointed to the governorship of Damascus and Taberia, where he was successful on the Byzantine. He had triumphed, he had dominated the situation when Humareveyh was killed in Damascus and punished the criminals. But he was arrested and imprisoned as a result of the intrigues of those who feared him and died there.
Muhammad had gained experience by being with his father during all of these political turmoil, even at a very young age, he had served as a deputy governor to the terrorists, imprisoned with his father, had been released for a while after his death, at the age of 25.
Borders of the sons of Ihshit
Muhammad realizes that it is impossible for him to remain in Baghdad
First he went to Syria and then to Egypt, where he entered the auspices of Tigin, the governor, who gave him important duties first. Strengthened its control over Syria.
When Tigin died at the time, he demanded the governorship of Egypt, he succeeded in this task, but the governor's office remained on paper, whereupon he began to strengthen his army and navy.
This preparation lasted two years
He went on the offensive against Egypt, defeated the forces in front of him, and thus dominated Egypt in 935, Egypt began the era of sons of betrayal.
Muhammad b. Tugc expanded the boundaries of the state by dominating not only Egypt but also Syria, Yemen and Hejaz, while the Fatimid became a force that threatened Egypt, Muhammad stopped their attacks, the caliph gave him the title of betrayal, but a After a while, he wanted to take back the provinces under his rule, a commander named ibn raik, was appointed to replace Muhammad, the chief commander in the center of the caliph was Turkish. Had to leave Syria.
With the death of Ibn Raik, who had returned to Baghdad, Muhammad escaped from his powerful rival and attacked the Syrian army at the head of his army and took it back under his rule.
Personality of Muhammed b.tugc
Muhammad b.tugc, despite being a harsh ruler, was not vindictive and cruel, he was guilty of the humanity of the criminals, his life did not deviate from the principle of morality, the people were chosen by the people, meticulously adhere to austerity measures, has led to the recognition of miserable, cautious and talented in government administration Although he was not a cowardly man, Egypt suffered a period of justice and security in his time.
Camphor administration in the state of Ihshit sons
Muhammad, before his death, the eldest son uncur'u appointed a worship, when he fell ill he brought the camphor to his guardianship, when his father died, uncur was only 15 years old, despite the Abbasid caliph, his corn and the governor of Syria, but now the administration of camphor Had taken.
Camphor was born in Ethiopia
Camphor was born in Ethiopia, sold to Egypt as a slave, thanks to his features, was given the trust of the education of the children of the Prophet Muhammad, he was appointed to the commander, ibraif was successful against.
The sons of Ihshit first had to deal with the hamdanis, mostly in the clashes in Syria and Palestine, both sides could not reach a definite result, so they made peace by accepting the terms of the agreement made during the time of Muhammad.
The sons of Ihshit established good relations with Byzantine and Baghdad occupying Bukhadi, but after a while the relations with Byzantium broke down, the Byzantine navy prevailed in the sea, and the Byzantine army occupied 968, occupying the northern Syrian state, and the ruling sons there. Ended
The land-khanate state
Straw sons, black khan relations
After Musa Baytaş, his son Ali became the Great Khan. During the short sultanate of Ali Khan, struggles against the eastern and southern neighbors continued and he is thought to have died in one of these wars.
In the western wing of the state, Harun was a common ruler, his sons of straw had lost their power and became a living state in their last years.
A state that lived its last years
Aaron seized Bukhara, the capital of the sons of straw, and took over the river area of the Mule, but died on his way back from Bukhara to Kashgar.
When the great hakan Ali died in 998, his son Ahmet became the inn, and his brother relations with the sons of straw were carried out by the nasr bugra khan. , after a while, nasr bugra khan, no longer the power to resist all the members of the family was taken to the state of this state was taken to the capital, the date was 999.
War with Punjabi Racas
Shortly after mahmut became the ruler of Ghaznavid
Shortly after Mahmud of Ghaznavid became the ruler, the Karakhanids ceased the existence of the sons of straw, so that their adherence to the state of the son of the Ghaznavids ended.
Flights to India
Mahmut of Ghaznavid took sistan under his rule, and the border between them and the karahans was determined, the first of his famous expeditions to India after securing a few castles in 1000, the mahmut of gazneli prepared 10 thousand horsemen for the second Indian campaign. Sebük tigin'e defeated hündu ruler caypal, welcomed him with a much more crowded army, caypal 12 thousand horsemen, 30 thousand infantry and 300 war elephants.
Ghaznani mahmut defeated the Indians and captured caypal and his commanders. In 1001, the hindu king was released with the charge of giving 50 elephants and annual taxes, but this was reduced from the eyes of the Hindus because of this defeat, and he committed suicide by throwing himself in the fire. Mahmut, then returned to victory in the 2nd indian campaign and took the title of veterans, mahmut, the third Indian campaign against the batiya raca, they defeated the crowded army, this castle besieged, most of the commander fell captive raca life was year 1004.
Sultan mahmut, made his fourth expedition on multan in 1006, he asked permission to pass from mahmut pencab racas with ghazna, when raca anandpal refused to accept it, he walked over to him, his forces were defeated, he suffered heavy losses, raca, escaped to kashmah, ran through window and reached multan. He besieged and conquered the city, and one of the Indian princes who became a prisoner and became a Muslim was appointed governor.
But when the princes went out and rebelled against the old religion, mahmut marched on them again and suppressed the rebellion.
Punjab racan ananpal, was under pressure from other racas, after being loyal to the Ghaznavid for a while, prepared to act by taking over the united army of the racas, on which mahmut had to go to the 6th campaign, the war between the two sides was tough, gazneli mahmut, sometimes difficult But he won the battle on the basis of superior command, thus securing the Punjabi road.
There was no longer any righteous force left in the hands of the Rajahs, but mahmut took the nagarkot castle where a famous temple was located after a difficult siege.
Mahmut Ghaznav, 9th indian expedition made on nandana made in 1014, after this difficult journey, reached the region with a large army moved to Kashmir.
Mahmut 10th indian expedition gave important results, 150 kilometers north of delhi, tanisar was one of the holy cities of Hindus and took over.
Ghassan mahmut, 12th indian expedition, ended in great successes in the year 1080, Ghazna army was supported with 20 thousand people coming from consumers, Ghazneli mahmut passed through cumnairmag, some of the racas accepted Islam, the opponents were eliminated,