- Education and Science
Types Of Cement
Cement is a substance prepared by heating limestone with clay at 1450 degrees in a kiln. As a result “clinker” is produced to which other substances are added which determine different types of cement.
Cement gets hard on heating therefore it is used for construction and binding purposes.
There are three main types of cements:
- Portland cements
- Non Portland cements
- Rapid hardening cements
The Portland cement is the most basic and the most commonly used cement in the world the Portland cement was formerly known as ordinary Portland cement and is made by adding gypsum into the clinker.
Using the Portland cement, concrete is made which is forms the basis of all the constructions. Concrete is made by adding the Portland cement, water and gravel and sand.
It can be cast in any shape and once it hardens it can form the base of any construction. However concrete is not very sustainable.
The Portland cement is versatile and durable and can be either grey or white.
Below are the common types of Portland cements:
Types Of Building Materials
- Building Material
Houses are a basic need for every human being. From caves to modern well built houses; houses are fulfilling the need of shelter and protection humans in every age.
- White Cement
The white cement is a type of Portland cement to which raw materials such as pure white chalk and white clay kaolin is added. It also contains very mall quantities of iron oxide and manganese oxide.
The white cement as the name suggests is white in color due to the presence of white chalk. This cement is chosen as the material of preparation of white and off white colored concretes for buildings which are white from the outside.
- Masonry Cement
The masonry cements are a mixture of Portland cement and some selected minerals such as limestone and hydrated lime. As obvious the masonry cement is used for making masonry mortars used in brick lying, block lying, plastering and rendering.
Into the mixture of Portland cement and minerals, some air entraining plasticizers are added which form air bubbles in the mortar.
Mostly, different sands and water is added to make the mortars more workable and cohesive. These cohesive mortars are freeze and thaw resistant in wet and a freshly hardened state.
- Expansive Cements
The expansive cements are the mixtures of Portland cement, calcium sulfoaluminate clinkers and some quantity of gypsum.
The expansive cements are used as a compensation of concretes which tend to shrink as they dry out.
Either the expansive cement is used for the compensation of the shrinkage of the concrete or used to increase the volume of the concrete when it is initially prepared.
Types Of Concrete Blocks
- Concrete Blocks
When building walls, blocks and bricks are primary materials. Bricks are smaller and made of clay, although concrete bricks are also available.
Facts And Tips About House Building
- History Of Housing
A HOUSE is a building that provides shelter, comfort, and protection. It is one of man's three most important necessities. The other two being food and clothing.
- How To Build A New House From Scratch
Protection is an essential personal requirement, and be able to choice from being as easy as an animal hide tent or refuge of brushwood and vegetation, to a multi-story fortress with dozens of bedrooms.
- Building An Eco Friendly Home
The world is running out of its resources and we human beings are responsible for this. For centuries we have been taking the natures gifts for us, for granted and have been misusing our resources.
Types Of Other Materials
- Types Of Plastic
Plastic is perhaps the most commonly use substance in the world. Almost everything that surrounds us is made of plastic.
- Types Of Soil
A thin layer of little grains that covers the surface of earth is called soil. Soil is formed from a lot of different things including decaying plant, rock particles and animal matter.
- Silica Fumes Portland Cement
The silica fume Portland cement contains Portland cement and silica fumes.
These cements have an exceptional strength and are extremely durable when hardened.
- Blast Furnace
The blast furnace Portland cement contains 70% granulated blast furnace slag, some gypsum and of course Portland cement.
The blast furnace cement is of extreme high strength but if the fumes are added more the strength is reduced and the sulfate resistance is increased.
These Portland cements are used as a compensation of Portland sulfate
Non Portland Cements
The non Portland cement is a high resistance, sustainable cement with the addition of braw materials such as: Calcium sulfoaluminate, Alkali aluminosilicates and certain Hydro carbons.
The non-Portland cement is of following types:
- Geopolymer Cements
The Geopolymer cements are a mixture of water-soluble alkali metal silicates and aluminosilicate mineral powders such as metakaolin and fly ash.
- Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cements
The calcium sulfoaluminate cements are made form clinkers used in the making of expansive cements. These cements are ultra high resistance cements, have a super strength and low energy cements
- Calcium Aluminate Cements
These cements are made from limestone and bauxite. The active ingredient used in this cement ismonocalcium aluminate CaAl2O4 and Mayenite Ca12Al14O33.
The high strength of this cement is due to the hydration of calcium aluminate hydrates.
This cement is well suited for the making of high temperature resistance concretes for furnace linings.
- Slag-lime Cements
The slag lime cements contain blast furnace slag and is activated by the addition of alkalis. Lime is also used in their making.
Rapid Hardening Cements
The rapid hardening cements are a mixture of Portland and non Portland cements.
These cements contain: Calcium aluminate or Calcium sulfoaluminate.
They set very quickly and when hardened are of very high strength and resistance.