- Education and Science
US History - The New Nation: 1799 - 1850
George Washington Camp Bed
George Washington's Broadway Home in 1790
Independence Hall, Philadelphia
NYC - Capital Until 1800
New York City is called by many names: The Capital of the World, The Naked City, The Big Apple, The Abortion Capital of the World, The Gateway to America, and others. Despite all of these colorful sobriquets, New York City was once the Capital of the United States of America, before Philadelphia and Washington, DC.
NYC became the national capital for government planning and action beginning in 1765. In 1774, Philadelphia began to share some of the responsibility of "capital duties" by hosting the First Continental Congress and the second such congress in 1775 -1776. A few other cities hosted federal government functions as well and these included Annapolis and Baltimore, Maryland; Princeton NJ; York and Lancaster PA, and others.
In 1789, the Continental Congress convened in NYC to inaugurate the first President of the United States (POTUS), General George Washington. This was done at Federal Hall on the now famous and infamous Wall Street. Wall Street marketing and advertising, as well as the associated Stock Market developed into a phenomenon that have controlled or affected the nation's economy and politics rather strongly from the 1700s into the 21st century. Philadelphia also served as the National Capital for certain ceremonies and conventions of congress and other governmental events and actions. Between the two cities, NYC and Philadelphia shared "capital duties" from 1765 - 1800, when Washington, DC because the permanent national capital.
Original California Republic Flag
US Constitutional Law and the Presidency 1791 - 1850
America enacted the Presidential Succession Act of 1792 in order to ensure that the order of succession to the Presidency of the United States of America would follow this line if the President (POTUS) died or became unable to fulfill his official duties:
- The President of the United States
- The Vice President of the United States
- The US Senate President Pro Tempore
- The US SPeraker of the House of Respresenatives
No further changes or additions were made to this line until 1886.
US Constitutional Ammendments during this Time Period:
- Ammendments 1 through 10 are known as The BIll fo Rights. All 10 Ammendments were accepted by the US States through ratification on December 15, 1791.
- Amendment XI was ratified in 1795, three years after Kentucky became a US State.
- Amendment XII was ratified in 1804, the year after Ohio became a US State and eight years after Tennessee became a US State.
No other Constitutional Ammendments were accepted until 1865.
US States That Were Dissolved
- State of Muskogee 1799 - 1803. Capital: Mikasuke. Native American state located in Florida populated with Creeks and Seminoles.
- The Republic of West Florida 1810. Capital: St. Francisville, LA. Covered parts of Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi.
- The Republic of Indian Stream 1832 - 1835.Capital: Pittsburg, NH. A country-state located within New Hampshire, founded under a land grant from a Native American Chief known as King Philip.
- Republic of the Rio Grande 1840.Covered parts of Mexico and Texas, Having its capital in Texas, Mexico, and Texas again.
- California Republic 1823 - 1846. Capital: Sonoma.
Territories and US Statehood
The Original 13 American Colonies all became states between the years of 1787 (Delaware was first) and 1790 (Rhode Island was last). Between 1799 and 1850, the following areas in North America became 18 separate and official US States:
- Vermont became a US State in 1791
- Kentucky: 1792
- Tennessee: 1796
- Ohio: 1803
- Louisiana: 1812
- Indiana: 1816
- Mississippi: 1817
- Illinois: 1818
- Alabama: 1819
- Maine: 1820
- Missouri: 1821
- Arkansas: 1836
- Michigan: 1837
- Florida: 1845
- Texas: 1845
- Iowa: 1846
- Wisconsin: 1848
- California: 1850
The Underground Railroad
PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES
Thomas Jefferson - 1801 and 1805, after Lewis & Clark reached the Pacific Ocean. Louisiana Purchase was done in 1803. Congress banned import of African slaves in 1808.
James Madison - 1809, 1813. The War of 1812 was fought against British seafaring and shipping interference from 1812 - 1814. The Star Spangled Banner lyrics were composed in 1814.
James Monroe - 1815, 1921. The Missouri Compromise occurred in 1820. IN 1823, the Monroe Doctrine stood against any further outside interference or colonization attempts by Europeans.
John Quincy Adams- 1825. Canals and railroads flourished.
Andrew Jackson - 1829, 1833. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 sent native Americans back to the west, destroying families and killing thousands while exercising Eminent Domain. Nat Turner Rebellion of 1831 demonstrated a growing restlessness and complaint against slavery in the US. Texas broke away from Mexico in 1836.
Martin Van Buren - 1827. The Trail of Tears destroyed thousands of Cherokees as they were forced to march west. They lost there lands and families, and some of them had owned black slaves that were either freed, killed, or taken by whites.
William Harry Harrison - 1841. Texas is taken by the USA.
James Polk - 1845. Oregon Territory was taken by the USA in 1846 and the 49th Parallel of Latitude became the border with Canada. 1847 - 1848 saw war with Mexico and the Gold Rush began in California at Sutter's Mill in 1848.
1848 - First women's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York.
Zachary Taylor - 1949. Harriet Tubman escaped form slavery and became active in The Underground Railroad.
1850 - The first National Women's Rights Convention was held in Worcester, Mass., with yearly meetings through 1860, except for 1857.
1850 - The slave trade became illegal in Washington, DC.