ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Valence Bond Theory

Updated on March 30, 2015
Valence Bond Theory Hybridization
Valence Bond Theory Hybridization | Source

Explaining Covalent Bonding

Valence bond theory accounts for bonding between two atoms in terms of overlapping atomic orbitals.

For example, the bonding between two hydrogen atoms is said to be due to the overlap of the 1s orbitals of the two atoms. In polyatomic molecules, the concept of hybridization is invoked in order to make the idea of overlapping orbitals consistent with the molecular geometry.

Explaining Bond Angles

In general, we can correlate the steric number to the hybridization of the atom.

  • If the steric number is 2 (linear center), the hybridization is sp.
  • If the steric number is 3 (trigonal planar center), the hybridization is sp2.
  • If the steric number is 4 (tetrahedral center), the hybridization is sp3.
  • If the steric number is 5 (trigonal planar center), the hybridization is dsp3 (or sp3d).
  • If the steric number is 6 (octahedral center), the hybridization is d2sp3 (or sp3d2).

Watch those nice videos:

Graphical representations of hybrid orbitals can be found at at Prof. Winter's Orbitron gallery:

For more about sigma and pi bonding, see this video:

Exercise: What type of orbital hybridization explains the linear electronic geometry around an atom with a steric number of 2?
A. sp

B. sp2,

C. sp3

D. sp3d

E. sp3d2


Answer:

Exercise:What is the hybridization of the valence orbitals of the carbon atom in the structure?

A. sp

B. sp2

C. sp3

D. sp3d

Answer:

Exercise: In the structure below, the sigma bond between which two atoms is due to an sp2-to-sp2overlap?

A. C and O

B. C and N

C. N and H

Answer:

Explaining Bond Lengths

Hybridization can also be used to explain the effect of multiple bonding on bond lengths.

For example: the C-to-C bond in H3C-CH3 is longer than that in H2C=CH2. The C-to-C bond in the former involves an sp3-to-sp3 overlap, while the latter involves an sp2-to-sp2 overlap. For a hybrid orbital with a greater "p character," the region of high electron density stretches out farther from the nucleus; sp3 hybrids have higher p character than sp2 hybrids.

Exercise and Answer in below video:

© 2015 Discover the World

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)