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What Should Be Done About Overuse Injuries? Do Coaches Need Supervision?The Vaccination Debate!

Updated on December 6, 2014

Watch the Healthlink video on sports injuries. Then, in a post to the discussion board, either agree or disagree with the following statement: “There should be guidelines in place for student athletes to help prevent overuse injuries.”

Whether you agree or disagree, give at least one example of a guideline that might be used for this purpose and why you think it would be a positive or negative development. Make sure you include information showing you understand how these types of injuries impact children and teen bodies differently than they affect adults who are finished growing.

I fully agree with the statement: “there should be guidelines in place for student athletes to help prevent overuse injuries.” I honestly feel that there should be several guidelines for student athletes in place to prevent overuse injuries. For one I think coaches should be required to put together a schedule for their team that includes game times, practice times, the maximum amount of time allowed for exercise each day, and the amount of down time the athlete should be getting. I feel it would then help if the coach met with each student athlete and his or her family to discuss the importance of adhering to the schedule and not practicing more than the allowed amount. After the discussion I feel that the parents, the student athlete, and the coach should sign a contract saying that they each have been given a copy of the schedule and that they agree to do their best to follow it. This would insure that neither the athlete, the parents, nor the coach is left unware of the type and amount of training the athlete is doing at home and with the coach.

If an overuse injury does occur then the doctor treating the athlete should become involved with his or her sports activities. The doctor should work with the student athlete, the parents, and the coach to insure that the child has enough time to heal and is not pretending to be fine while the injury is still causing the athlete pain. The doctor should also work with the coach to alter the schedule as needed to ensure the athlete does not end up with chronic overuse injuries. If the doctor or coach feels that the athlete is being pushed by peers, parents, coaches, and/or anyone else then a psychologist should be brought in to talk with the athlete to help the athlete deal with the pressure in healthy ways that does not result in injuries.

These kinds of guidelines are sorely needed for student athletes more so than adult athletes because unlike adults the student athletes are still growing. That fact that they are still growing places the student athletes at a greater risk for injury than adults (A Guide to Safety for Young Athletes, 2014). An overuse injury for a student athlete can lead to impaired growth and long-term health problems (A Guide to Safety for Young Athletes, 2014).


A Guide to Safety for Young Athletes. (2014). Retrieved November 12, 2014, from

What happens within the body when a person sustains a concussion?Why do you think the effects of concussions on young athletes have gotten so much attention lately?There are clear guidelines for how to handle athletes with concussions, but unfortunately, coaches (particularly those at the high school and collegiate level) don't abide by them like they should. What do you think can/should be done about this?

Student athletes with concussions have been getting a large amount of attention lately due to the number of prep football players who suffered a concussion and then died from a blow to the head or neck a few days to four weeks after their concussion (Karnowski, 2011). A concussion occurs when the head suffers a direct blow (Sports Concussion Institute, 2012). When this happens the impact rapidly accelerates the head which causes the brain to hit the inner skull; when the head stops moving the brain impacts on the opposite side of the inner skull (Sports Concussion Institute, 2012).

A concussion in a student athlete is different than a concussion in an adult athlete because student athletes take longer to recover and they are also at risk for more severe symptoms and more neurological disturbances (Sports Concussion Institute, 2012). The increased risk that concussed student athletes suffer makes it vitally important that coaches follow the guidelines on what to do when one of their players have a concussion. However many coaches cut corners and allow their players back in the game when they should be resting mentally and physically in a semi-dark room (Mann, 2011).

I feel that whenever a student athlete is hit on the head they should have to be examined by a licensed physician before they are allowed to play again. If the doctor diagnoses the player with a concussion then the player should not be allowed to practice or play until the doctor gives their approval. I feel that coaches who disregard the guidelines in place for how to handle athletes with concussions should be immediately fired and investigated for possible neglect to their players’ health. If there was a set consequence for coaches that ignore the guidelines in place then the coaches would be less likely to gamble with their players’ health because the coach would also be gambling with their own career.


Sports Concussion Institute. (2012). Concussion Facts | Sports Concussion Institute. Retrieved November 18, 2014, from

Karnowski, S. (2011, June 20). Study affirms concussion dangers to young athletes. Retrieved November 18, 2014, from

Mann, D. (2011, October 6). Concussions on the Rise for Young Athletes. Retrieved November 18, 2014, from

Outline the controversy surrounding vaccinations and discuss whether the controversy has any basis in science. Then explain why you think parents should or should not have the option to choose whether or not to vaccinate their children.

The controversy that surrounds vaccinations is centered on the issue of the risks of vaccinations to young children. There is debate about whether the current vaccination schedule is overly aggressive for some children, if vaccinations can cause autism, and if parents should get their children vaccinated. There have been studies done to determine if vaccinations can cause autism, and as of yet, not one study has found vaccination to cause autism. During 2013 a research study was done on the relationship between certain vaccine types and autism; the study demonstrates that autism spectrum disorder is not associated with immunological stimulation from vaccines during the first 2 years of life (CDC, 2013). The study also showed that the current vaccination schedule for children from birth to the age of two is not overly aggressive and is safe for all children (CDC, 2013). In the case of Hannah Poling it was found that her underlying dysfunction of mitochondria put her at an increased risk of injury from the vaccines (Wallis, 2008).

I personally believe that children should be tested for underlying conditions that could increase the child’s risk of injury from the vaccines before being vaccinated. This would hopefully cut down the number of children who are harmed from vaccinations. If some sort of testing could be put in place then I feel that parents should not have the option of not vaccinating their children. If a testing method for underlying conditions could not be implemented for children then I feel that parents should only have to have their children vaccinated with vaccines that do not have thimerosal in them. I feel that parents should have to have their children vaccinated because their child is the one that could be harmed by not being vaccinated not the parent. Also if the child develops a condition like measles and then he or she comes in to contact with other people than a good number of people could end up having to be hospitalized based on one parent’s decision not to vaccinate their child (Get The Picture: Childhood Immunizations, 2013).


CDC. (2013, March 29). Vaccines not associated with risk of autism. Retrieved November 23, 2014, from

Get The Picture: Childhood Immunizations. (2013, November 22). Retrieved November 23, 2014, from

Wallis, C. (2008, March 10). Case Study: Autism and Vaccines. Retrieved November 23, 2014, from,8599,1721109,00.html

A Balancing Act

Tightrope walker Nik Wallenda crossed Niagara Falls on June 15, 2012. He understands the importance of maintaining balance. Muscles and bones work together for balanced movements, but there is another type of balancing act taking place among the body’s hormones within the endocrine system. These important chemical substances are released from the endocrine glands to coordinate the body’s activities. The amount released at any given time varies depending on the body’s ever-changing needs.
Another important body system is the immune system. The body’s immune system protects itself against bacteria, viruses, cancer cells, and other natural enemies. Unfortunately, some people’s immune systems attack their own tissues. If the war is waged against the endocrine organs, the result can be the release of either too much or too little of their secretions. This type of imbalance can wreak havoc on the body. The thyroid gland is commonly affected by this type of response. People with thyroid problems might experience difficulty sleeping, irritability, and weight loss if it is overactive. On the other hand, they may gain weight or feel weak and fatigued if it is underactive.
The immune system does a great job of protecting the body from pathogens, or disease-causing organisms. This system works best when people take care of themselves. Most experts agree that getting sufficient rest, maintaining a clean environment, and frequently washing hands can reduce the chances of getting sick. But is there anything more people can do?
Fortunately, there is. The first is addressing diet. Consuming sufficient amounts of zinc is an effective way of optimizing immune system function. According to the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of this essential mineral for males 19 years of age and older is 11 mg; women need 8 mg (2011). Many foods contain zinc, particularly oysters and poultry; other options include “beans, nuts, certain types of seafood (such as crab and lobster), whole grains, and fortified breakfast cereals” (ODS, 2011). It’s important to ensure that the body gets enough of the RDA for all nutrients so it functions at its best. Another important food to consume is green leafy vegetables because they contain antioxidants. These vitamins and minerals remove toxic byproducts from the bloodstream that damage DNA and interfere with the body’s ability to fight disease (Cleveland Clinic, n.d.).
People can do immune systems a big favor by exercising on a regular basis. Even low levels of activity do the trick. Studies show that a regiment that includes brisk walking for 20-30
Module Five: A Balancing Act
2 BIO 210 Module Five
minutes five days each week can be a very effective way to optimize the natural killer (T-cell) and antibody response. But should people exercise when they’re sick? If the sickness is a cold, the answer is yes; however, if a fever is present, people should not because exercise will raise body temperature even more.


Cleveland Clinic. (n.d.). Diet, exercise, stress and the immune system. Retrieved from
Hopper, T. (2012). Nik Wallenda successfully completes Niagara Falls highrope walk before spectators, television viewers. National Post. Retrieved from
Mann, D. (2012, March 23). Exercising when sick: A good move? Retrieved from
Marieb, E.N. (2012). Essentials of human anatomy and physiology (10th ed.). San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc.
Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). (2011). Dietary supplement fact sheet: Zinc. Retrieved from
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women’s Health. (2010). Autoimmune diseases overview. Retrieved from


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